(28 t.) & אֵפֹד
(20 t.) noun masculineExodus 28:7 ephod
compare Aramaic id.
(on meaning see Lagl.c
.), perhaps also Assyrian pid
; on form see Ges§ 84a
12. R. but Lagl.c.
, & thinks אֵפוֺד
shortened from ׳חֵשֶׁב הָא
'robe of approach
to God) — ׳א
absolute Exodus 25:7
+; construct 1 Samuel 2:18
1 ephod, priestly garment, shoulder-cape or mantle; a. as worn by ordinary priest made of white stuff (בַּד) 1 Samuel 22:18; ׳נֹשֵׂא א compare
2; so Samuel as a temple-servant 1 Samuel 2:8; ׳חָגוּר א girt with an eph.; so David when dancing before ark 2 Samuel 6:14 (id.) 1 Chronicles 15:27 ׳וְעַל דוד א; b. as prescribed in P for high priest, more costly, woven of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, & linen (? שֵׁשׁ)threads, provided with shoulder-pieces & breast-piece of like material, ornamented with gems and gold, Exodus 25:7; Exodus 28:4,6,12,15; Exodus 29:5; Exodus 35:9,27 17t. Exodus 28, 39, also Leviticus 8:7; compare probably 1 Samuel 2:28 (׳נֹשֵׂא א) 1 Samuel 14:3; 1 Samuel 21:10 (see below 2); ׳חֵשֶׁב הָא Exodus 28:27,28; Exodus 29:5; Exodus 39:20,21; Leviticus 8:7; ׳מְעִיל הָא Lev 29:5; Lev 39:22 (compare Leviticus 8:7); with verb עַלֿ ׳נָתַן אֶתהָֿא put the ephod on Aaron Leviticus 8:7. 2 ephod used in consulting ׳י 1 Samuel 23:6 ׳א borne in hand (read בְּיָדוֺ ׳יָרַד וְהָא ᵐ5 We Dr) 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7 (twice in verse) (all with חִגִּישׁ) + 1 Samuel 14:18 (הגישׁ) & 1 Samuel 14:18, in both read ׳הָא for ארון & 1 Samuel 14:18 also נֹשֵׂא ᵐ5 Klo Dr; a. according to Thes MV Di Exodus 28:6 and elsewhere properly below 1b; consultation of ׳י in that case by Urim & Thummim in the breast-piece attached to the ephod (compare Exodus 28:28-30 & see אוּרִים); if so, in view of נשׂא 1 Samuel 2:28; 1 Samuel 14:3,18 (compare above), not used elsewhere = wear except 1 Samuel 22:18, & of 1 Samuel 23:6, the word might be used by metonymy for the breast-piece itself; b. others, e.g. StaGeschichte i. 466, 471 BuRS 115 and others, think of an image representing ׳י; compare following.
3. a. ephod of gold made by Gideon Judges 8:27 for a local sanctuary, by which Israel was ensnared; = 2b according to ᵑ6 Thes ('sine controversia') Stu and others + Sta Bu 1.c.; originally = gold sheathing of an image (compare etymology above & Isaiah 30:22 below אֲפֻדָּה); MV Be KöHauptprobleme 59 think of garment, as below 1 see above
b. made (material not given) for a private, local sanctuary Judges 17:5; Judges 18:14,17,18,20 ("" מֶּסֶל, מַסֵּכָה, תְּרָפִים in all, for ᵐ5 gives מַסֵּכָה Judges 18:20, omitted by HCT); compare Hosea 3:4 Israel shall abide without king, prince, sacrifice, pillar, ephod or teraphim; according to Thes and others + Sta Bu l.c. = 2b; Stu Be Ry and others regard as below
1; in view of distinction from פסל, מסכה & תרפים it seems more likely that this is not an image, but some means of consulting deity, perhaps in imitation of Urim & Thummim.