Hierosoluma: Jerusalem, the capital of united Isr. and JudahOriginal Word: Ἱεροσόλυμα, ατος, τά, ἡPart of Speech:
Noun, Feminine; Noun, NeuterTransliteration:
the Greek form of the Hebrew name: Jerusalem.
Cognate: 2414 Hierosólyma (a neuter noun, occurring about 60 times) – properly, "dwelling of peace," referring to the city of Jerusalem (see also OT 3389/Yerúshálayim). See 2419 (Hierousalm, the feminine noun-form).
[OT Hebrew uses only one gender (term) for "Jerusalem" (OT 3389/Yerúshalayim).]
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
of Hebrew origin YerushalaimDefinition
Jerusalem, the capital of united Isr. and JudahNASB Translation
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 2414: ἹεροσόλυμαἹεροσόλυμα
, see their Introductory § 408), Ἱεροσολύμων
(the invariable form in Mark and John, almost everywhere in Matt. and Josephus
(c. Apion 1, 22, 13, etc.; Philo
, leg. ad Gaium § 36; (cf. Polybius
16, 39, 4); others)), and Ἱερουσαλήμ
(see reference as above)), ἡ
, indeclinable (the invariable form in the Sept.
, etc.; Philo
de somn. 2:39 at the beginning; so Aristotle
, in Josephus
, contra Apion 1, 22, 7 (where see Müller)); in the N. T. where a certain sacred emphasis, so to speak, resides in the very name, as Galatians 4:25
f (see Lightfoot
at the passage); Hebrews 12:22
; Revelation 3:12
; Revelation 21:2, 10
; thus in direct address: Matthew 23:37
; Luke 13:34
; both forms are used promiscuously (yet with a marked preference for the indeclinable form) in the O. T. Apocrypha, and in the writings of Luke and of Paul; (cf. Tdf.
Proleg., p. 119; WH
's Appendix, p. 160). Whether there is also a third and unusual form Ἱεροσόλυμα
, in Matthew 2:3
; Matthew 3:5
, is extremely doubtful; for in the phrase ἐξεπορεύετο
, Matthew 3:5
, the noun can be taken as a neuter plural with a singular verb, cf. Winer
's Grammar, § 58, 3 a.; and in the former passage, Matthew 2:3
, the unusual coupling of the feminine πᾶσα
with the neuter plural Ἱεροσόλυμα
is easily explained by the supposition that the appellative idea, ἡ πόλις
, was in the writer's mind; see Fritzsche and Bleek at the passage; cf. Buttmann
, 18 (16); (yet see Pape
, Eigennamen, under the word). Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלִַם
, Chaldean יְרוּשְׁלֶם
, Syriac mLSrw)
. Many suppose that the Hebrew name is composed of יְרוּשׁ possession, and שָׁלֵם, so that it signifies tranquil possessions, habitation of peace; but the matter is very uncertain and conjectures vary; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, ii., p. 628f; (B. D. under the word); on the earlier name of the city see below in Σαλήμ; LatinHierosolyma,Hierosolymorum, also (Vulg. e. g. manuscripts Amiat. and Fuld. Matthew 23:37; but especially) in the church fathersHierusalem, but the formHierosolyma,Hierosolymae, is uncertain (yet see even Old Latin manuscripts in Matthew 2:1, 3)), — Jerusalem (A. V. Hierusalem and Ierusalem), the capital of Palestine, situated nearly in the center of the country, on the confines of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah, in a region so elevated that ἀναβαίνειν, עָלָה, to go up, fitly describes the approach to it from any quarter. The name is used in the N. T.:
1. to denote, either the city itself, Matthew 2:1; Mark 3:8; John 1:19, etc.; or its inhabitants, Matthew 2:3; Matthew 3:5; Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34.
2. ἡ νῦν Ἱερουσαλήμ (the Jerusalem that now is), with its present religious institutions, i. e. the Mosaic system, so designated from its primary external location, Galatians 4:25, with which is contrasted ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ (after the rabbinical phrase מעלה שׁל ירושׁלים, Jerusalem that is above, i. e. existing in heaven, according to the pattern of which the earthly Jerusalem מטה שׁל ירושׁלים was supposed to be built (cf. Schöttgen, Horae Hebrew i., 1207ff)), i. e. metaphorically, the City of God founded by Christ, now wearing the form of the church, but after Christ's return to put on the form of the perfected Messianic kingdom, Galatians 4:26; Ἱερουσαλήμ ἐπουράνιος, the heavenly Jerusalem, i. e. the heavenly abode of God, Christ, the angels, beatified men (as well the saints of the O. T. as Christians), and as citizens of which true Christians are to be regarded while still living on earth, Hebrews 12:22; ἡ καινή Ἱερουσαλήμ in the visions of John 'the Revelator,' the new Jerusalem, a splendid visible city to be let down from heaven after the renovation of the world, the future abode of the blessed: Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, 10.