Brown-Driver-Briggs בָּמָה104 noun feminine high place
(√ apparently בום
on account of firm ָ֯
; compare Assyrian bâmâtê
ZimBP 48, Moab. במת
) — Jeremiah 48:35
18t.; הַבָּמָ֫תָה 1 Samuel 9:13
; plural בָּמוֺת Numbers 21:19
62t.; construct בָּֽמֳתֵי Job 9:8
; Isaiah 14:14
; Amos 4:13
; בָּֽמֳו֯תֵי Deuteronomy 32:13
; Isaiah 58:14
; Micah 1:3
(Ew§ 211 d
, 5 archaic feminine construct with retracted accent before monosyl. in poetry, bâm©-thê
); suffix בָּמֹתַי 2 Samuel 22:34
3t.; בָּמוֺתַי Psalm 18:34
1 high place, mountain: בָּמוֺת יָעַר forest mountains Micah 3:12 = Jeremiah 26:18; במות עולם ancient mountains Ezekiel 36:2; במות ארנן Numbers 21:28 (E poetry)
2 high places, battle-fields, the chief places of the land giving possession, victory, dominion: על במותיך on thy high places (Gilboa, the battle-field) 2 Samuel 1:19,25 (in 2 Samuel 1:19 ᵐ5 has a doublet מֵתֶיךָ thy dead, see We Dr).
a. of Israel: רכב על במתי ארץ ride upon the high places of the land Deuteronomy 32:13 & Isaiah 58:14 compare Deuteronomy 33:29; Psalm 18:34 = 2 Samuel 22:34; Habakkuk 3:19.
b. of God: דרך על במתי ארץ tread upon the high places of the earth Amos 4:13 compare Micah 1:3; במתי ים Job 9:8; עלה על במתי עב (aspiration of the king of Babylon) Isaiah 14:14.
3 high places, as places of worship, at first on hills and mountains, later on artificial mounds or platforms, under green trees, and in cities; still later for the chapels erected thereon, and once apparently for a portable sanctuary (decked with diverse colours) Ezekiel 16:16. The ancient worship of Israel was conducted on these high places. In the times of Samuel and David they ascended to them, descended from them, and offered sacrifices on them, 1 Samuel 9:12-25; 1 Samuel 10:5,13 (הבמה for הביתה We Dr). The custom continued in the reign of Solomon, but Gibeon was הבמה הגדולה 1 Kings 3:2-4 compare 1 Chronicles 16:39; 1 Chronicles 21:29; 2Chronicles 1:3,13. High places of Baal were also used Numbers 22:41 (E) Jeremiah 19:5; Jeremiah 32:35; of Moab Isaiah 15:2; Isaiah 16:12; Jeremiah 48:35 (compare MI27); these must be demolished Numbers 33:52 (J). Solomon built במות (platforms or chapels) to Chemosh and Milkom on the Mt. of Evil Counsel opposite Jerusalem 1 Kings 11:7: Jeroboam made temples on the ancient high places of Dan and Bethel 1 Kings 12:31,32; 2Chronicles 11:15; they are called במות און Hosea 10:8, במות ישׂחק Amos 7:9: the kings of Israel built במות and בתי הבמות in all their cities 2 Kings 17:9, and the people worshipped there 2 Kings 17:11; these were also used by the mixed population after the exile of Israel 2 Kings 17:29,32 (twice in verse): these various idolatrous high places were first destroyed by Josiah 1 Kings 13:2; 1 Kings 13:32; 1 Kings 13:38; 2 Kings 23:5-20 2Chronicles 34:3. The worship of Yahweh on high places continued in Judah until the exile 1 Kings 22:44; 2 Kings 15:35; the sanctity code predicts that Yahweh will destroy them Leviticus 26:30; they were regarded as the reason for the rejection of Shiloh Psalm 78:58. The compiler of Kings, writing from the point of view of the Deuteronomic code, complains רַק הַבָּמוֺת לֹא סָרוּ 2 Kings 12:4; 2 Kings 14:4; 2 Kings 15:4,35 compare 2 Chronicles 15:17; 20:33, and praises the few pious kings who destroyed them.
a. Rehoboam built במות with מצבות & אשׁרים on every high hill and under every green tree 1 Kings 14:23.
b. Asa did not remove the high places 1 Kings 15:14 (2 Chron 14:2; 2 Chronicles 14:4 is incorrect unless במות בעל).
c. Jehoshaphat in his reform on the basis of the covenant code did not remove them 1 Kings 22:44 (עוֺד הֵסִיר אֶתהַֿבָּמוֺת2Chronicles 17:16 is doubtless incorrect, possibly read מצבות); Jehoram, his son, made high places in the cities of Judah 2Chronicles 21:11 (ᵐ5 ᵑ9; not mountains HCT); and Ahaz sacrificed on high places on the hills and under every green tree and in every city of Judah 2 Kings 16:4; 2Chronicles 28:4,25; compare Micah 1:5 (read חטאת? so ᵐ5 ᵑ6 ᵑ7 Che and others; yet compare JBL1890, 73 f.)
d. Hezekiah removed them 2 Kings 18:4,22; 2Chronicles 31:1; 32:12; Isaiah 36:7; but Manasseh rebuilt them 2 Kings 21:3; 2Chronicles 33:3,19, and the people continued to sacrifice thereon to Yahweh 2 Chronicles 33:17.
e. Josiah, in his reform, based on the Deuteronomic code, defiled them and brake them down from Geba to Beersheba 2 Kings 23:5,8,9; but subsequently there were במות התפת in the valley of Ben Hinnom Jeremiah 7:31, and במות throughout Judah Jeremiah 17:3 compare Ezekiel 6:3,6; Ezekiel 20:29 (questioned by Ew & Co).
4 funereal mound (?) Ezekiel 43:7 (Thes, but in their high places AV RV; in their death ᵑ7 Theod Ew Hi RVm), Isaiah 53:9 (Lowth Ew Bö Rodwell Orelli; but in his death AV RV, or martyr death De Che Br).