noun feminine ephah (etymology dubious, ᵐ5. οιφι etc., compare Coptic ôipi, Thes LagOr. ii. 2 & cit.) — ׳א Numbers 5:15 +; אֵפָה Exodus 16:36 +; construct אֵיפַת Leviticus 19:36 +; — ephah, a grain-measure.
1 a certain quantity of wheat, barley, etc. = ten omers (עֹמֶר) Exodus 16:36 (compare in measure of offerings Leviticus 5:11; Leviticus 6:13; Numbers 5:15; Numbers 28:5, all ׳עֲשִׂירִית הָא; = 1/10 chomer (חֹמֶר) Ezekiel 45:11 (= bath, בַּת, liquid measure q. v.) compare Isaiah 5:10; chiefly of offerings, see above & 1 Samuel 1:24; Ezekiel 45:13 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 45:24 (3 t. in verse); Ezekiel 46:5 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 46:7 (3 t. in verse); Ezekiel 46:11 (3 t. in verse); Ezekiel 46:14; compare Judges 6:19, but also of food 1 Samuel 17:17 compare Ruth 2:17 & Isaiah 5:10 above
2 receptacle or measure, holding an ephah, in prophetic vision Zechariah 5:6,7,8,9,10; just measure אֵיפַתצֶֿדֶק Leviticus 19:36 ("" ׳מאֹזְנֵיצֿ, ׳אַבְנֵיצֿ, ׳הִֶין צ) compare Ezekiel 45:10,11; אֵיפָה ׳שׁלֵמָה וָצ Deuteronomy 25:15 ("" ׳וָצ ׳אֶבֶן שׁ); of unjust measure אֵיפָה וְאֵיפָה Deuteronomy 25:14; Proverbs 20:10; ׳הַקְטִין א Amos 8:5; אֵיפַת רָווֺן Micah 6:10. (On the actual size of ephah, compare בַּת).
אֵיפֹה see below אַי. P.33
אישׁ, אושׁ (Stem assumed in Thes for אִישׁ; existence & meaning somewhat dubious Thes (Add) & most derive אִישׁ from [אִנְשְׁ] √ אנשׁ (q. v.) In favour are plural אֲנָשִׁים, feminine אִשָּׁה = [אִנְשָׁה], lack of proven √ אישׁ, & lack of clear parallels for אישׁ in cognate languages. Against the derivation of אִישׁ from inš is the vocalization (ִ י, and that fully written, not ֵ), maintained even with suffixes, the (rare) plural אִישִׁים, the impossibility of deriving אִישׁ & אִשָּׁה from same √ (אִשָּׁה from ), the existence of אֱנוֺשׁ as parallel form, and the (exceptional) parallel Aramaic איש (Inscription of Carpentras), also Arabic (compare Frey) "" ; MI, SI, Phoenician אש are not decisive; Sabean has both אסם & אנסם; the former apparently = אִישׁ, the latter אֱנוֺשׁ; but on former compare DHMZK 1884, 360 & SabDenkm37. On the whole, probability seems to favour √ אישׁ; Thes gave meaning be strong; DlHA 9, Pr 161 compare Assyrian išanu, strong (compare Dlw. p. 244), & proper name יְהוֺאָשׁ; compare also PrätLOPh Feb. 1884; otherwise DHMl. e. & ZMG 1883, 330 & especially NöZMG 1886, 739 LagBN 68; compare also Wetzst in DePsalmen, ed. 4, p. 888 and others see also אנשׁ, אֱנוֺשׁ).