ginóskó: to come to know, recognize, perceiveOriginal Word: γινώσκωPart of Speech:
I come to know, learn, realizeDefinition:
I am taking in knowledge, come to know, learn; aor: I ascertained, realized.
1097 ginṓskō – properly, to know, especially through personal experience (first-hand acquaintance). 1097 /ginṓskō ("experientially know") is used for example in Lk 1:34, "And Mary [a virgin] said to the angel, 'How will this be since I do not know (1097 /ginṓskō = sexual intimacy) a man?'"
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
from a prim. root gnó-Definition
to come to know, recognize, perceiveNASB Translation
ascertaining (1), aware (7), certainty (1), come to know (1), comprehend (1), felt (1), find (3), found (2), kept...a virgin* (1), knew (13), know (104), know how (1), knowing (3), known (25), knows (14), learn (1), learned (1), perceived (1), perceiving (2), put (1), realize (3), recognize (7), recognized (1), recognizing (1), sure (4), take notice (1), unaware* (2), understand (11), understood (6), virgin* (1).
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 1097: γινώσκωγινώσκω
, see γίνομαι
at the beginning; from ΓΝΟΩ
, as βιβρώσκω
); (imperfect ἐγίνωσκον
); future γνώσομαι
; 2 aorist ἔγνων
), imperative γνῶθι
, subjunctive γνῷ
(3 person singular γνοῖ
, Mark 5:43
; Mark 9:30
; Luke 19:15 L T Tr WH
, for R G γνῷ
, p. 46 (40); cf. δίδωμι
at the beginning)), infinitive γνῶναι
, participle γνούς
; perfect ἔγνωκα
; 3 person plural ἔγνωκαν
, see references in γίνομαι
at the beginning); pluperfect ἐγνώκειν
; passive (present 3 person singular γινώσκεται
(Mark 13:28 Tr
marginal reading)); perfect ἐγνωσμαι
; 1 aorist ἐγνώσθην
; future γνωσθήσομαί
; in Greek writings from Homer
down; the Sept.
(i. e.gnosco, gnovi
1. to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of; passive to become known: with the accusative, Matthew 22:18; Mark 5:43; Acts 21:34; 1 Corinthians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 2:4; Colossians 4:8; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, etc. Passive, Matthew 10:26; Acts 9:24; Philippians 4:5, etc.; (impersonally, γινώσκεται, Mark 13:28 Tr marginal reading T 2, 7); τί ἐκ τίνος, Matthew 12:33; Luke 6:44; 1 John 4:6; τινα or τί ἐν τίνι, to find a sign in a thing by which to know, to recognize in or by something, Luke 24:35; John 13:35; 1 John 4:2; κατά τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο, the truth of this promise, Luke 1:18 (Genesis 15:8); περί τῆς διδαχῆς, John 7:17. often the object is not added, but is readily understood from what precedes: Matthew 9:30; Matthew 12:15 (the consultation held by the Pharisees); Mark 7:24 (he would have no one know that he was present): Mark 9:30; Romans 10:19, etc.; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 21:45; John 4:1; John 5:6; John 12:9, etc.; followed by the interrogative τί, Matthew 6:3; Luke 16:4; ἀπό τίνος to learn from one, Mark 15:45. with the accusative of person to recognize as worthy of intimacy and love, to own; so those whom God has judged worthy of the blessings of the gospel are said ὑπό τοῦ Θεοῦ γινώσκεσθαι, 1 Corinthians 8:3; Galatians 4:9 (on both cf. Winers Grammar, § 39, 3 Note 2; Buttmann, 55 (48)); negatively, in the sentence of Christ οὐδέποτε ἔγνων ὑμᾶς, I never knew you, never had any acquaintance with you, Matthew 7:23. to perceive, feel: ἔγνω τῷ σώματι, ὅτι etc. Mark 5:29; ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἀπ' ἐμοῦ, Luke 8:46.
2. to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of;
a. to understand: with the accusative, τά λεγόμενα, Luke 18:34; ἅ ἀναγινώσκεις, Acts 8:30; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 21:45; John 8:27; 2 Corinthians 13:6; Galatians 3:7; James 2:20; followed by interrog, τί, John 10:6; John 13:12, 28; ὁ κατεργάζομαι οὐ γινώσκω I do not understand what I am doing, my conduct is inexplicable to me, Romans 7:15.
b. to know: τό θέλημα, Luke 12:47; τάς καρδίας, Luke 16:15; τόν μή γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν ignorant of sin, i. e. not conscious of having committed it, 2 Corinthians 5:21; ἐπιστολή γινωσκομένη καί ἀναγινωσκομένη, 2 Corinthians 3:2; τινα, to know one, his person, character, mind, plans: John 1:48 (); ; Acts 19:15; 2 Timothy 2:19 (from Numbers 16:5); followed by ὅτι, John 21:17; Philippians 1:12; James 1:3; 2 Peter 1:20; followed by the accusative with an infinitive Hebrews 10:34; followed by an indirect question, Revelation 3:3; Ἑλληνιστί γινώσκειν, to know Greek (graecescire, Cicero, de fin. 2, 5): Acts 21:37 (ἐπίστασθαί Συριστί, Xenophon, Cyril 7, 5, 31;graecenescire, Cicero, pro Flac. 4, 10); ἴστε (Rec. ἐστε) γινώσκοντες ye know, understanding etc. (R. V. ye know of a surety, etc.), Ephesians 5:5; see Winers Grammar, 355 (333); (cf. Buttmann, 51 (44); 314 (269)). imperative γινώσκετε know ye: Matthew 24:32f, 43; Mark 13:29; Luke 10:11; John 15:18; Acts 2:36; Hebrews 13:23; 1 John 2:29.
3. by a Hebraistic euphemism (cf. Winer's Grammar, 18), found also in Greek writings from the Alexandrian age down, γινώσκω is used of the carnal connection of male and female,remcumaliquo oraliquahabere (cf. our have a (criminal) intimacy with): of a husband, Matthew 1:25; of the woman, Luke 1:34; (Genesis 4:1, 17; Genesis 19:8; 1 Samuel 1:19, etc.; Judith 16:22; Callimachus (<260 b.c.="">) epigr. 58, 3; often in Plutarch; cf. Vögelin, Plutarch, Brut., p. 10ff; so also Latincognosco, Ovid. met. 4, 596; novi, Justin Martyr, hist. 27, 3, 11).
II. In particular γινώσκω, to become acquainted with, to know, is employed in the N. T. of the knowledge of God and Christ, and of the things relating to them or proceeding from them;
a. τόν Θεόν, the one, true God, in contrast with the polytheism of the Gentiles: Romans 1:21; Galatians 4:9; also τόν μόνον ἀληθινόν Θεόν, John 17:3 cf. 1 John 5:20; τόν Θεόν, the nature and will of God, in contrast with the false wisdom of both Jews and Gentiles, 1 Corinthians 1:21; τόν πατέρα, the nature of God the Father, especially the holy will and affection by which he aims to sanctify and redeem men through Christ, John 8:55; John 16:3; 1 John 2:3f, 14 (); ; a peculiar knowledge of God the Father is claimed by Christ for himself, John 10:15; John 17:25; γνῶθι τόν κύριον, the precepts of the Lord, Hebrews 8:11; τό θέλημα (of God), Romans 2:18; νοῦν κυρίου, Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 2:16; τήν σοφίαν τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 2:8; τάς ὁδούς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Hebrews 3:10 (from Psalm 94:10<10> (). 260>
b. Χριστόν, his blessings, Philippians 3:10; in Χριστόν ἐγνωκέναι κατά σάρκα, 2 Corinthians 5:16, Paul speaks of that knowledge of Christ which he had before his conversion, and by which he knew him merely in the form of a servant, and therefore had not yet seen in him the Son of God. According to John's usage, γινώσκειν, ἐγνωκέναι Χριστόν denotes to come to know, to know, his Messianic dignity (John 17:3; John 6:69); his divinity (τόν ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, 1 John 2:13f cf. John 1:10), his consummate kindness toward us, and the benefits redounding to us from fellowship with him (in Christ's words γινώσκομαι ὑπό τῶν ἐμῶν, John 10:14 (according to the critical texts γινώσκουσιν με τά ἐμά)); his love of God (John 14:31); his sinless holiness (1 John 3:6). John unites πιστεύειν and γινώσκειν, at one time putting πιστεύειν first: John 6:69 (cf. Schaff's Lange or Meyer at the passage); but at another time γινώσκειν: John 10:38 (according to R G, for which L T Tr WH read ἵνα γνῶτε καί γινώσκητε (R. V. know and understand)); John 17:8 (L brackets καί ἔγνωσαν); 1 John 4:16 (the love of God).
c. γνῶναι ... τά τοῦ πνεύματος the things which proceed from the Spirit, 1 Corinthians 2:14; τό πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας καί τό πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης, 1 John 4:6; τά μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, Matthew 13:11; τήν ἀλήθειαν, John 8:32; 2 John 1:1; absolutely, of the knowledge of divine things, 1 Corinthians 13:12; of the knowledge of things lawful for a Christian, 1 Corinthians 8:2. [SYNONYMS: γινώσκειν, εἰδέναι, ἐπίστασθαί, συνιέναι: In classic usage (cf. Schmidt, chapter 13), γινώσκειν, distinguished from the rest by its original inchoative force, denotes a discriminating apprehension of external impressions, a knowledge grounded in personal experience. εἰδέναι, literally, 'to have seen with the mind's eye,' signifies a clear and purely mental perception, in contrast both to conjecture and to knowledge derived from others. ἐπίστασθαί primarily expresses the knowledge obtained by proximity to the thing known (cf. our understand, German verstehen); then knowledge viewed as the result of prolonged practice, in opposition to the process of learning on the one hand, and to the uncertain knowledge of a dilettante on the other. συνιέναι implies native insight, the soul's capacity of itself not only to lay hold of the phenomena of the outer world through the senses, but by combination (σύν and ἰέναι) to arrive at their underlying laws. Hence, συνιέναι may mark an antithesis to sense-perception; whereas γινώσκειν marks an advance upon it. As applied e. g. to a work of literature, γινώσκειν expresses an acquaintance with it; ἐπίστασθαί the knowledge of its contents; συνιέναι the understanding of it, a comprehension of its meaning. γινώσκειν and εἰδέναι most readily come into contrast with each other; if εἰδέναι and ἐπίστασθαί are contrasted, the former refers more to natural, the latter to acquired knowledge. In the N. T., as might be expected, these distinctions are somewhat less sharply marked. Such passages as John 1:26, 31, 48 (); ; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 1 John 5:20 may seem to indicate that, sometimes at least, γινώσκω and οἶδα are nearly interchangeable; yet see John 3:10, 11; John 8:55 (yet cf. ); 1 John 2:29 (know ... perceive), and the characteristic use of εἰδέναι by John to describe our Lord's direct insight into divine things: (contrast ); , etc; cf. Lightfoot's note on Galatians 4:9; Green, 'Critical Notes' etc., p. 75 (on John 8:55); Westcott on John 2:24. γινώσκω and ἐπίσταμαι are associated in Acts 19:15 (cf. Green, as above, p. 97); οἶδα and γινώσκω in 1 Corinthians 2:11; Ephesians 5:5; οἶδα and ἐπίσταμαι in Jude 1:10. Compare: ἀναγινώσκω, διαγινώσκω, ἐπιγινώσκω, καταινώσκω, προγινώσκω.] 10>
allow, be aware of, perceive.
A prolonged form of a primary verb; to "know" (absolutely) in a great variety of applications and with many implications (as follow, with others not thus clearly expressed) -- allow, be aware (of), feel, (have) know(-ledge), perceived, be resolved, can speak, be sure, understand.