Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 1343: δικαιοσύνηδικαιοσύνη
); most frequently in the Sept.
, rarely for חֶסֶד
; "the virtue or quality or state of one who is δίκαιος
1. in the broad sense, the state of him who is such as he ought to be, righteousness (German Rechtbeschaffenheit); the condition acceptable to God (German Gottwohlgefalligkeit);
a. universally: λόγος τῆς δικαιοσύνης (like λόγος τῆς καταλλαγῆς, λόγος τοῦ σταυροῦ), the doctrine concerning the way in which man may attain to a state approved of God, Hebrews 5:13; βασιλεύς δικαιοσύνης, the king who himself has the approbation of God, and who renders his subjects acceptable to God, Hebrews 7:2; cf. Bleek at the passage b. "integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, correctness in thinking, feeling, and acting: Matthew 3:15; Matthew 5:6, 10, 20; Matthew 6:1 G L T Tr, WH; Acts 13:10; Acts 24:25; Romans 6:13, 16, 18-20 (opposed to ἁμαρτία, ἀνομία, and ἀκαθαρσία); Romans 8:10 (opposed to ἁμαρτία); Romans 14:17 (? (see c.)); 2 Corinthians 6:7, 14 (opposed to ἀνομία, as in Xenophon, mem. 1, 2, 24); 2 Corinthians 11:15; Ephesians 5:9; Ephesians 6:14; Philippians 1:11; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 4:8; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 12:11; James 3:18; 1 Peter 3:14; 2 Peter 2:5, 21; 2 Peter 3:13, and very often in the O. T.; ἐν ὁδῷ δικαιοσύνης, walking in the way of righteousness equivalent to an upright, righteous, man, Matthew 21:32; τοῦ Θεοῦ, the righteousness which God demands, Matthew 6:33; James 1:20; of righteousness which manifests itself in "beneficence: 2 Corinthians 9:9f (cf. Tobit 14:11; Gesenius, Thesaurus iii., p. 1151; so Chaldean צִדְקָה, Daniel 4:24, and in the Talmud and rabbinical writings (Buxtorf. col. 1891 (p. 941, Fischer edition); cf. Winer's Grammar, 32)); where δίκαιος καί ὁσιότης are connected — Luke 1:75; Ephesians 4:24, (Wis. 9:3; Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 48, 4 [ET] and occasionally in secular writings) — the former denotes right conduct toward men, the latter piety toward God (cf. Plato, Gorgias, p. 507 b.; Grimm on Sap., p. 181f; (cf. Trench, § 88, p. 328f; for additional examples see Wetstein (1752) on Ephesians, the passage cited; cf. ὅσιος); εὐσέβεια καί δικαιοσύνη, Diodorus 1, 2); ποιεῖν τήν δικαιοσύνην, to do righteousness, to live uprightly: 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7; 1 John 3:10 (not Lachmann); and in Revelation 22:11 according to the text now accepted; in like manner ἐργάζεσθαι δικαιοσύνην, Acts 10:35; Hebrews 11:33; ζῆν τῇ δικαιοσύνη, to live, devote the life, to righteousness, 1 Peter 2:24; πληροῦν πᾶσαν δικαιοσύνην, to perform completely whatever is right, Matthew 3:15. When affirmed of Christ, δικαιοσύνη denotes his perfect moral purity, integrity, sinlessness: John 16:8, 10; when used of God, his holiness: Romans 3:5, 25f.
c. in the writings of Paul ἡ δικαιοσύνη has a peculiar meaning, opposed to the views of the Jews and Judaizing Christians. To understand this meaning, the following facts especially must be kept in view: the Jews as a people, and very many who had become converts from among them to Christianity, supposed that they secured the favor of God by works conformed to the requirements of the Mosaic law, as though by way of merit; and that they would thus attain to eternal salvation. But this law demands perfect obedience to all its precepts, and threatens condemnation to those who do not render such obedience (Galatians 3:10, 12). Obedience of this kind no one has rendered (Romans 3:10), neither Jews nor Gentiles (Romans 1:24-2:1) — for with the latter the natural law of right written on their souls takes the place of the Mosaic law (Romans 2:14f). On this account Paul proclaims the love of God, in that by giving up Christ, his Son, to die as an expiatory sacrifice for the sins of men he has attested his grace and good-will to mankind, so that they can hope for salvation as if they had not sinned. But the way to obtain this hope, he teaches, is only through faith (see πίστις (especially 1 b. and d.)), by which a man appropriates that grace of God revealed and pledged in Christ; and this faith is reckoned by God to the man as δικαιοσύνη; that is to say, δικαιοσύνη denotes "the state acceptable to God which becomes a sinner's possession through that faith by which he embraces the grace of God offered him in the expiatory death of Jesus Christ (see δικαιόω, 3 b.). In this sense ἡ δικαιοσύνη is used without an adjunct in Romans 4:5f, 11; Romans 5:17, 21; Romans 9:30; Romans 14:11 (? (see b.)); 1 Corinthians 1:30; Galatians 5:5; δικαιοσύνη Θεοῦ, ἡ τοῦ Θεοῦ δικαιοσύνη, the righteousness which God ascribes, what God declares to be righteousness (Winer's Grammar, 186 (175)), Romans 1:17; Romans 3:21; Romans 10:3; by a pregnant use, equivalent to that divine arrangement by which God leads men to a state acceptable to him, Romans 10:4; as abstract for concrete, equivalent to those whom God accounts righteous, 2 Corinthians 5:21; δικαιοσύνη Θεοῦ διά πίστεως, Romans 3:22; ἡ δικαιοσύνη τῆς πίστεως, which is acquired by faith, or seen in faith, Romans 4:11, 13; ἡ ἐκ Θεοῦ δικαιοσύνη which comes from God, i. e. is adjudged, imputed, Philippians 3:9 (wbere the addition ἐπί τῇ πίστει depends on ἔχων, having ... founded upon faith (cf. Winer's Grammar, 137 (130); 392 (367); yet cf. Ellicott, at the passage)); ἡ ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοσύνη which comes from faith, Romans 9:30; Romans 10:6; ἡ διά πίστεως Χριστοῦ, Philippians 3:9; ἡ κατά πίστιν δικαιοσύνη according to, appropriate to, faith, Hebrews 11:7 (but it should be kept in mind that the conception of 'faith' in the Epistle to the Hebrews is broader than in Paul's writings (cf. e. g. Kurtz, at the passage)); Christ is called δικαιοσύνη, as being the one without whom there is no righteousness, as the author of righteousness, 1 Corinthians 1:30; εἰς δικαιοσύνην, unto righteousness as the result, to obtain righteousness, Romans 10:4, 10; ἡ πίστις λογίζεται τίνι εἰς δικαιοσύνην, faith is reckoned to one for righteousness, i. e. is so taken into account, that righteousness is ascribed to it or recognized in it: Romans 4:3, 6, 9, 22; Galatians 3:6; James 2:23; ἡ διακονία τῆς δικαιοσύνης (see διακονία, 2 b.), 2 Corinthians 3:9. Opposed to this δικαιοσύνη, arising from faith, is ἡ ἐκ νόμου δικαιοσύνη, a state acceptable to God which is supposed to result from obedience to the law, Romans 10:5f; ἡ δικαιοσύνη ἐν νόμῳ relying on the law, i. e. on imaginary obedience to it, Philippians 3:6; ἡ ἰδίᾳ δικαιοσύνη and ἡ ἐμή ἐδικαιοσυνη, such as one supposes that he has acquired for himself by his own works, Romans 10:3 Philippians 3:9, cf. Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:21.
2. in a closer sense, justice, or the virtue which gives each one his due; it is said to belong to God and Christ, as bestowing ἰσότιμον πίστιν upon all Christians impartially, 2 Peter 1:1; of judicial justice, Romans 9:28 R G Tr marginal reading in brackets; κρίνειν ἐν δικαιοσύνη, Acts 17:31; Revelation 19:11. (See references under the word δικαιόω at the end.)<1>