ouranos: heavenOriginal Word: οὐρανός, οῦ, ὁPart of Speech:
the sky, the heavenDefinition:
heaven, (a) the visible heavens: the atmosphere, the sky, the starry heavens, (b) the spiritual heavens.
3772 ouranós – heaven (singular), and nearly as often used in the plural ("heavens"). "The singular and plural have distinct overtones and therefore should be distinguished in translation (though unfortunately they rarely are)" (G. Archer).
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
a prim. wordDefinition
air (9), heaven (218), heavenly* (1), heavens (24), sky (22).
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 3772: οὐρανόςοὐρανός
(from a root meaning 'to cover,' 'encompass'; cf. Vanicek
, p. 895; Curtius
, § 509), heaven
; and, in imitation of the Hebrew שָׁמַיִם
(i. e. properly, the heights above, the upper regions
, the heavens
s Grammar, § 27, 3; Buttmann
, 24 (21)) (on the use and the omission of the article cf. Winer
's Grammar, 121 (115)), i. e.:
1. the vaulted expanse of the Sky with all the things visible in it;
a. generally: as opposed to the earth, Hebrews 1:10; 2 Peter 3:5, 10, 12; ὁ οὐρανός καί ἡ γῆ (heaven and earth) equivalent to the universe, the world (according to the primitive Hebrew manner of speaking, inasmuch as they had neither the conception nor the name of the universe, Genesis 1:1; Genesis 14:19; Tobit 7:17 (18); 1 Macc. 2:37, etc.): Matthew 5:18; Matthew 11:25; Matthew 24:35; Mark 13:31; Luke 10:21; Luke 16:17; Luke 21:33; Acts 4:24; Acts 14:15; Acts 17:24; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 20:11. The ancients conceived of the expanded sky as an arch or vault the outmost edge of which touched the extreme limits of the earth (see B. D. under the word , cf. ); hence, such expressions as ἀπ' ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως ἄκρων αὐτῶν, Matthew 24:31; ἀπ' ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ, Mark 13:27; ὑπό τόν οὐρανόν (הַשָּׁמַיִם תַּחַת, Ecclesiastes 1:13; Ecclesiastes 2:3, etc.), under heaven, i. e. on earth, Acts 2:5; Acts 4:12; Colossians 1:23; ἐκ τῆς (namely, χώρας, cf. Winers Grammar, 591 (550); (Buttmann, 82 (71f))) ὑπ' (here L T Tr WH ὑπό τόν οὐρανόν) οὐρανόν εἰς τήν ὑπ' οὐρανόν, out of lite one part under the heaven unto the other part under heaven i. e. from one quarter of the earth to the other, Luke 17:24; as by this form of expression the greatest longitudinal distance is described, so to one looking up from the earth heaven stands as the extreme measure of altitude hence, κολλᾶσθαι ἄχρι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Revelation 18:5 (L T Tr WH) (on which see κολλάω); ὑψωθῆναι ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, metaphorically, of a city that has reached the acme, zenith, of glory and prosperity, Matthew 11:23; Luke 10:15 (κλέος οὐρανόν ἱκει, Homer, Iliad 8, 192; Odyssey 19, 108; πρός οὐρανόν βιβάζειν τινα, Sophocles O. C. 382 (381); examples of similar expressions from other writings are given in Kypke, Observations, i., p. 62); καινοί οὐρανοί (καί γῆ καινή), better heavens which will take the place of the present after the renovation of all things, 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1; οἱ νῦν οὐρανοί, the heavens which now are, and which will one day be burnt up, 2 Peter 3:7; also ὁ πρῶτος οὐρανός, Revelation 21:1, cf. Hebrews 12:26. But the heavens are also likened in poetic speech to an expanded curtain or canopy (Psalm 103:2<10> (); Isaiah 40:22), and to an unrolled scroll; hence, ἑλίσσειν (T Tr marginal reading ἀλλάσσειν) τούς οὐρανούς ὡς περιβόλαιον, Hebrews 1:12 (from the Sept. of Psalm 101:26<10> () manuscript Alex.); καί ὁ οὐρανός ἀπεχωρίσθη ὡς βιβλίον ἑλισσόμενον (or εἱλισσόμενον), Revelation 6:14.
b. the aerial heavens or sky, the region where the clouds and tempests gather, and where thunder and lightning are produced: ὁ οὐρανός πυρράζει, Matthew 16:2 (T brackets WH reject the passage); στυγνάζων, Matthew 16:3 (see last reference); ὑετόν ἔδωκε, James 5:18; add Luke 9:54; Luke 17:29; Acts 9:3; Acts 22:6; Revelation 13:13; Revelation 16:21; Revelation 20:9; σημεῖον or ἀπό τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Matthew 16:1; Mark 8:11; Luke 11:16; Luke 21:11; τέρατα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ Acts 2:19; κλείειν τόν οὐρανόν, to keep the rain in the sky, hinder it from falling on the earth, Luke 4:25; Revelation 11:6, (συνέχειν τόν οὐρανοῦ for הַשָּׁמַיִם עָצַר, Deuteronomy 11:17; 2 Chronicles 6:26; 2 Chronicles 7:13; ἀνέχειν τόν οὐρανόν, Sir. 48:3); αἱ νεφέλαι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Matthew 24:30; Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62; τό πρόσωπον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Matthew 16:3 (T brackets WH reject the passage); Luke 12:56; τά πετεινά τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (genitive of place), that fly in the air (Genesis 1:26; Psalm 8:9; Baruch 3:17; Judith 11:7), Matthew 6:26; Matthew 8:20; Matthew 13:32; Mark 4:32; Luke 8:5; Luke 9:58; Luke 13:19; Acts 10:12. These heavens are opened by being cleft asunder, and from the upper heavens, or abode of heavenly beings, come down upon earth — now the Holy Spirit, Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:21; John 1:32; now angels, John 1:51 (52); and now in vision appear to human sight some of the things within the highest heaven, Acts 7:55; Acts 10:11, 16; through the aerial heavens sound voices, which are uttered in the heavenly abode: Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22; John 12:28; 2 Peter 1:18.
e. the sidereal or starry heavens: τά ἄστρα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ Hebrews 11:12 (Deuteronomy 1:10; Deuteronomy 10:22; Euripides, Phoen. 1); οἱ ἀστέρες ... τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Mark 13:25; Revelation 6:13; Revelation 12:4 (Isaiah 13:10; Isaiah 14:13); αἱ δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν, the heavenly forces (hosts), i. e. the stars (others take δυνάμεις in this phrase in a general sense (see δύναμις, f.) of the powers which uphold and regulate the heavens): Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:26; αἱ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, Mark 13:25 (Hebrew הַשָּׁמַיִם צְבָא, Deuteronomy 17:3; Jeremiah 33:22; Zephaniah 1:5); so ἡ στρατιά τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Acts 7:42.
2. "the region above the sidereal heavens, the seat of an order of things eternal and consummately perfect, where God dwells and the other heavenly beings": this heaven Paul, in 2 Corinthians 12:2, seems to designate by the name of ὁ τρίτος οὐρανός, but certainly not the third of the seven distinct heavens described by the author of the Test xii. Patr., Levi § 3, and by the rabbis ((cf. Wetstein at the passage; Hahn, Theol. d. N. T. 1:247f; Drummond, Jewish Messiah, chapter xv.)); cf. DeWette at the passage Several distinct heavens are spoken of also in Ephesians 4:10 (ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν); cf. Hebrews 7:26, if it be not preferable here to understand the numerous regions or parts of the one and the same heaven where God dwells as referred to. The highest heaven is the dwelling-place of God: Matthew 5:34; Matthew 23:22; Acts 7:49; Revelation 4:1ff (Psalm 10:4<10> (); (f)); hence, Θεός τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Revelation 11:13; Revelation 16:11 (Genesis 24:3); ὁ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρανός, Matthew 5:16, 45; Matthew 6:1, 9; Matthew 7:21; Matthew 10:33; Matthew 7:50; Matthew 16:17; Matthew 18:10 (here L WH marginal reading ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ in brackets), ; Mark 11:25f, etc. From this heaven the πνεῦμα ἅγιον is sent down, 1 Peter 1:12 and the passages already cited (cf. 1 b. under the end); and Christ is said to have come, John 3:18, 31; John 6:38, 41; 1 Corinthians 15:47; it is the abode of the angels, Matthew 24:36; Matthew 22:30; Matthew 18:10; Matthew 28:2; Mark 12:25; Mark 13:32; Luke 2:15; Luke 22:43 (L brackets WH reject the passage); Galatians 1:8; 1 Corinthians 8:5; Ephesians 3:15; Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 12:7; Revelation 18:1; Revelation 19:14 (Genesis 21:17; Genesis 22:11); τά ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καί τά ἐπί τῆς γῆς, the things and beings in the heavens (i. e. angels) and on the earth, Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:16, 20; γίνεται τό θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐν οὐρανῷ, i. e. by the inhabitants of heaven, Matthew 6:10; χαρά ἔσται ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, God and the angels will rejoice, Luke 15:7. this heaven is the abode to which Christ ascended after his resurrection, Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51 (T omits; WH reject the clause); Acts 1:10; Acts 2:34; Acts 3:21; Romans 10:6; (Ephesians 1:20 Lachmann text); 1 Peter 3:22; Hebrews 1:4 (ἐν ὑψηλοῖς); ; Revelation 4:2, and from which he will hereafter return, 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; into heaven have already been received the souls (πνεύματα) both of the O. T. saints and of departed Christians, Hebrews 12:23 (see ἀπογράφω, b. at the end), and heaven is appointed as the future abode of those who, raised from the dead and clothed with superior bodies, shall become partakers of the heavenly kingdom, 2 Corinthians 5:1, and enjoy the reward of proved virtue, Matthew 5:12; Luke 6:23; hence, eternal blessings are called θησαυρός ἐν οὐρανῷ, Matthew 6:20; Luke 12:33, and those on whom God has conferred eternal salvation are said ἔχειν θησαυρόν ἐν οὐρανῷ (οὐρανοῖς), Matthew 19:21; Mark 10:21; Luke 18:22, cf. Hebrews 10:34 (R G); or the salvation awaiting them is said to be laid up for them in heaven, Colossians 1:5; 1 Peter 1:4; or their names are said to have been written in heaven, Luke 10:20; moreover, Christ, appointed by God the leader and lord of the citizens of the divine kingdom, is said to have all power in heaven and on earth, Matthew 28:18; finally, the seer of the Apocalypse expects a new Jerusalem to come down out of heaven as the metropolis of the perfectly established Messianic kingdom, Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, 10. By metonymy, ὁ οὐρανός is put for the inhabitants of heaven: εὐφραίνου οὐρανέ, Revelation 18:20, cf. Revelation 12:12 (Psalm 95:11<10> (); Isaiah 44:23; Job 15:15); in particular for God (Daniel 4:23, and often by the rabbis, influenced by an over-scrupulous reverence for the names of God himself; cf. Schürer in the Jahrbb. f. protest. Theol., 1876, p. 178f; (Keil, as below)): ἁμαρτάνειν εἰς τόν οὐρανόν, Luke 15:18, 21; ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, equivalent to by God, John 3:27; ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, of divine authority, Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:30; Luke 20:4; ἐναντίον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, 1 Macc. 3:18 (where the τοῦ Θεοῦ before τοῦ οὐρανοῦ seems questionable); ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἡ ἰσχύς, 1 Macc. 3:19; ἡ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ βοήθεια, , cf. ; cf. Keil, Comm. üb. 10>10>
d. Büch. d. Macc., p. 20. On the phrase ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν and its meaning, see βασιλεία, 3; (Cremer, under the word βασιλεία; Edersheim 1:265). 10>10>
air, heaven, sky.
Perhaps from the same as oros (through the idea of elevation); the sky; by extension, heaven (as the abode of God); by implication, happiness, power, eternity; specially, the Gospel (Christianity) -- air, heaven(-ly), sky.
see GREEK oros