ptóchos: (of one who crouches and cowers, hence) beggarly, poorOriginal Word: πτωχός, ή, όνPart of Speech:
poor, destitute, spiritually poor, either in a good sense (humble devout persons) or bad.
4434 ptōxós (from ptōssō, "to crouch or cower like a beggar") – properly, bent over; (figuratively) deeply destitute, completely lacking resources (earthly wealth) – i.e. helpless as a beggar. 4434 (ptōxós) relates to "the pauper rather than the mere peasant, the extreme opposite of the rich" (WP, 1, 371).
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
adjective from ptóssó (to crouch, cower)Definition
(of one who crouches and cowers, hence) beggarly, poorNASB Translation
poor (29), poor man (5), worthless (1).
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 4434: πτωχόςπτωχός
, to be thoroughly frightened, to cower down or hide oneself for fear; hence, πτωχός
properly, one who slinks and crouches), often involving the idea of roving about in wretchedness (see πένης
, at the end; "but it always had a bad sense till it was ennobled in the Gospels; see Matthew 5:3
; Luke 6:20
, cf. 2 Corinthians 8:9
" (Liddell and Scott, under I.)); hence,
1. in classical Greek from Homer down, reduced to beggary, begging, mendicant, asking alms: Luke 14:13, 21; Luke 16:20, 22.
2. poor, needy (opposed to πλούσιος): Matthew 19:21; Matthew 26:9, 11; Mark 10:21; Mark 12:42, 43; Mark 14:5, 7; Luke 18:22; Luke 19:8; Luke 21:3; John 12:5, 6, 8; John 13:29; Romans 15:26; 2 Corinthians 6:10; Galatians 2:10; James 2:2, 3, 6; Revelation 13:16; in a broader sense, destitute of wealth, influence, position, honors; lowly, afflicted: Matthew 11:5; Luke 4:18 (from Isaiah 61:1); ; οἱ πτωχοί τοῦ κόσμου (partitive genitive), the poor of the human race, James 2:5; but the more correct reading is that of L T Tr WH viz. τῷ κόσμῳ (unto the world), i. e. the ungodly world being judge, cf. Winers Grammar, § 31, 4 a.; Buttmann, § 133, 14; (R. V. as to the world (see next head, and cf. κόσμος, 7)). tropically, destitute of the Christian virtues and the eternal riches, Revelation 3:17; like the Latininops, equivalent to helpless, powerless to accomplish an end: στοιχεῖα, Galatians 4:9 (`bringing no rich endowment of spiritual treasure' (Lightfoot)).
3. universally, lacking in anything, with a dative of the respect: τῷ πνεύματι, as respects their spirit, i. e. destitute of the wealth of learning and intellectual culture which the schools afford (men of this class most readily gave themselves up to Christ's teaching and proved themselves fitted to lay hold of the heavenly treasure, Matthew 11:25; John 9:39; 1 Corinthians 1:26, 27; (others make the idea more inward and ethical: 'conscious of their spiritual need')), Matthew 5:3; compare with this the Epistle of Barnabas 19 [ET], see ἔσῃ ἁπλοῦς τῇ καρδία καί πλούσιος τῷ πνεύματι, abounding in Christian graces and the riches of the divine kingdom. (The Sept. for עָנִי, דַּל, רָשׁ, אֶבְיון, etc.)<1>
From ptosso (to crouch); akin to ptoeo and the alternate of pipto); a beggar (as cringing), i.e. Pauper (strictly denoting absolute or public mendicancy, although also used in a qualified or relative sense; whereas penes properly means only straitened circumstances in private), literally (often as noun) or figuratively (distressed) -- beggar(-ly), poor.
see GREEK ptoeo
see GREEK pipto
see GREEK penes