ara: therefore (an illative particle)Original Word: ἄραPart of Speech:
Particle, Disjunctive ParticleTransliteration:
then, therefore, sinceDefinition:
then, therefore, since.
686 ára (probably akin to arō, "to join, be fitting," see J. Thayer, Curtius) – an inferential particle meaning "it follows that . . . ".
[J. Thayer, "686 (ára) intimates that 'under these circumstances, something either is so, or becomes so' " (so also Klotz, 167).]
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
a prim. particleDefinition
therefore (an illative particle)NASB Translation
fact (1), perhaps (2), possible (1), so (4), so then (12), then (22), therefore (3), well then (1).
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 686: ἄρα (1)ἄρα (1)
, an illative particle (akin, as it seems, to the verbal root ἈΡΩ
to join, to be fitted (cf. Curtius
, § 488; Vanicek
, p. 47)), whose use among native Greeks is illustrated fully by Kühner, ii., §§ 509, 545; (Jelf
, §§ 787-789), and Klotz ad Devar.
ii., pp. 160-180, among others; (for a statement of diverse views see Bäumlein
, Griech. Partikeln, p. 19f). It intimates that, under these circumstances something either is so or becomes so
(Klotz, the passage cited, p. 167): Latinigitur
(differing from οὖν
in 'denoting a subjective impression rather than a positive conclusion.' Liddell and Scott (see 5 below)). In the N. T. it is used frequently by Paul, but in the writings of John and in the so-called Catholic Epistles it does not occur. On its use in the N. T. cf. Winer
's Grammar, §§ 53, 8 a. and 61, 6. It is found:
1. subjoined to another word: Romans 7:21; Romans 8:1; Galatians 3:7; ἐπεί ἄρα since, if it were otherwise, 1 Corinthians 7:14; (, cf. Buttmann, § 149, 5). When placed after pronouns and interrogative particles, it refers to a preceding assertion or fact, or even to something existing only in the mind: τίς ἄρα who then? Matthew 18:1 (i. e. one certainly will be the greater, who then?); Matthew 19:25 (i. e. certainly some will be saved; you say that the rich will not; who then?); Matthew 19:27; Matthew 24:45 (I bid you be ready; who then etc.? the question follows from this command of mine); Mark 4:41; Luke 1:66 (from all these things doubtless something follows; what, then?); Luke 8:25; Luke 12:42; Luke 22:23 (it will be one of us, which then?); Acts 12:18 (Peter has disappeared; what, then, has become of him?). εἰ ἄρα, Mark 11:13 (whether, since the tree had leaves, he might also find some fruit on it); Acts 7:1 (Rec.) (ἄρα equivalent to 'since the witnesses testify thus'); Acts 8:22 (if, since thy sin is so grievous, perhaps the thought etc.); εἴπερ ἄρα, 1 Corinthians 15:15, (אִם־נָא, εἰ ἄρα, Genesis 18:3). Οὐκ ἄρα, Acts 21:38 (thou hast a knowledge of Greek; art thou not then the Egyptian, as I suspected?); μήτι ἄρα (Latinnumigitur), did I then etc., 2 Corinthians 1:17.
2. By a use doubtful in Greek writings (cf. Buttmann, 371 (318); (Winers Grammar, 558 (519))) it is placed at the beginning of a sentence; and so, so then, accordingly, equivalent to ὥστε with a finite verb: ἄρα μαρτυρεῖτε (μάρτυρες ἐστε T Tr WH), Luke 11:48 (Matthew 23:31 ὥστε μαρτυρεῖτε); Romans 10:17; 1 Corinthians 15:18; 2 Corinthians 5:14 (15) (in L T Tr WH no conditional protasis preceding); 2 Corinthians 7:12; Galatians 4:31 (L T Tr WH διό); Hebrews 4:9.
3. in an apodosis, after a protasis with εἰ, in order to bring out what follows as a matter of course (German soistja the obvious inference is): Luke 11:20; Matthew 12:28; 2 Corinthians 5:14(15) (R G, a protasis with εἰ preceding); Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:29; Galatians 5:11; Hebrews 12:8; joined to another word, 1 Corinthians 15:14.
4. with γέ, rendering it more pointed, ἄραγε (L Tr uniformly ἄρα γέ; so R WH in Acts 17:27; cf. Winers Grammar, p. 45; Lipsius Gram. Untersuch., p. 123), surely then, so then (Latinitaqueergo): Matthew 7:20; Matthew 17:26; Acts 11:18 (L T Tr WH omit γέ); and subjoined to a word, Acts 17:27 (Winer's Grammar, 299 (281)).
5. ἄρα οὖν, a combination peculiar to Paul, at the beginning of a sentence (Winers Grammar, 445 (414); Buttmann, 371 (318) ("ἄραadinternampotiuscaussamspectat, οὖνmagisadexternam." Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 717; ἄρα is the more logical, οὖν the more formal connective; "ἄρα is illative, οὖν continuative," Winers, the passage cited; cf. also Kühner, § 545, 3)) (R. V.) so then (Latinhincigitur): Romans 5:18; Romans 7:3, 25; Romans 8:12; Romans 9:16, 18; Romans 14:12 (L Tr omit WH brackets οὖν); 19 (L marginal reading ἄρα); Galatians 6:10; Ephesians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:15.<1>
STRONGS NT 686: ἄραγε [ἄραγε, see ἄρα, 4.] [a&rage, see ἄρα, 1.] 1>
no doubt, perhaps, then, therefore, truly, wherefore.
Probably from airo (through the idea of drawing a conclusion); a particle denoting an inference more or less decisive (as follows) -- haply, (what) manner (of man), no doubt, perhaps, so be, then, therefore, truly, wherefore. Often used in connection with other particles, especially ge or oun (after) or ei (before). Compare also ara.
see GREEK airo
see GREEK ge
see GREEK oun
see GREEK ei
see GREEK ara