I. טָמֵא verb be or become unclean
(Late Hebrew Pi`el pollute
(ceremonially); Aramaic טְמָא
and especially derivatives,
; see RSK 307 ff.
Qal Perfect3masculine singular ׳ט Leviticus 11:25 22t.; 3 feminine singular טָֽמְאָה Leviticus 12:2 2t.; 2 feminine singular טָמֵאת Ezekiel 22:4; plural טָֽמְאוּ Leviticus 15:18; Imperfect יִטְמָא Leviticus 5:3 34t.; 3 feminine singular תִּטְמָא Leviticus 12:2 4t.; plural יִטְמְאוּ Psalm 106:39; Infinitive טָמְאָה Leviticus 15:32 6t.; — be or become unclean:
1 sexually, with בְּ Leviticus 18:20,23 (H), Ezekiel 23:17; the land Leviticus 18:25,27 (H).
2 religiously, with idols Ezekiel 22:3; with בְ Ezekiel 22:4; with necromancers Leviticus 19:31 (H); by sacrificing children to idols Psalm 106:39.
3 ceremonially, by contact with carcasses of unclean animals Leviticus 11:24,27,28,31,32,33,34 (twice in verse); Leviticus 11:35,36,40 (P); any carcass Leviticus 17:15 (H); eating of a carcass Leviticus 22:8 (H); by issues Leviticus 15:4,9,20 (twice in verse); Leviticus 15:24,27,32 (P); by contact with an unclean man Leviticus 5:3; Leviticus 15:4 (P), Leviticus 22:5 (H), or thing Leviticus 22:6 (H); by leprosy Leviticus 13:14,46; Leviticus 14:36,46 (P); by contact with the dead Numbers 6:12; Numbers 19:20 (P), Ezekiel 44:25, or with one unclean by such contact Numbers 19:22 (P), Haggai 2:13 (twice in verse); by contact with creeping things Leviticus 22:5 (H); certain animals were always unclean Leviticus 11:26,27 (P). In ordinary cases of uncleanness טמא עד הערב unclean till even Leviticus 11:24,25,27,28,31,32,39,40 (twice in verse); Leviticus 14:46; Leviticus 15:5; Leviticus 15:6; Leviticus 15:7; Leviticus 15:8; Leviticus 15:10 (twice in verse); Leviticus 15:11,16,17,18,19,21,22,23,27; Numbers 19:7; Numbers 19:8; Numbers 19:10; Numbers 19:21; Numbers 19:22 (all P), Leviticus 17:15; Leviticus 22:6 (H); but uncleanness lasted 7 days for woman bearings a son Leviticus 12:2 (twice in verse) (P), for lying with woman having an issue Leviticus 15:24 (P), or one coming in contact with the dead Numbers 19:11,14,16 (P); it lasted 14 days for a woman bearing a daughter Leviticus 12:5 (P).
Niph`al Perfect3masculine singular נִטְמָא Hosea 5:3; Hosea 6:10; 3feminine singular נִטְמְאָה Numbers 5:27,28; נִטְמָ֑אָה Numbers 5:13 5t.; 1 singular נִטְמֵאתִי Jeremiah 2:23; 2masculine plural נִטְמֵתֶם Leviticus 11:43 (א omitted by scribal error; but Ges and others derive from טמה), etc. + 4 t. perfect; Participle plural נִטְמְאִים Ezekiel 20:30,31; — defile oneself, be defiled:
1 sexually, Leviticus 18:24 (H), Numbers 5:13,14 (twice in verse); Numbers 5:20,27,28,29 (P).
2 by idolatry conceived as whoredom Hosea 5:3; Hosea 6:10; Jeremiah 2:23; Ezekiel 20:30,31,43; Ezekiel 23:7,13,30.
3 ceremonially, by eating creeping things Leviticus 11:43.
4 be regarded as unclean (compare Pi`el 4), probably נִטְמִינִוּ Job 18:3 we are accounted as unclean; metal. from; on another view see טמה.
Pi`el Perfect טִמֵּא Genesis 34:5 15t.; suffix טִמְּאוֺ Leviticus 13:8 3t.; 2 feminine singular טִמֵּאת Ezekiel 5:11, etc. + 7 t. Perfect; Imperfect יְטַמֵּא 2 Kings 23:8, etc. + 12 t. Imperfect; Imperative plural טַמְּאוּ Ezekiel 9:7; Infinitive טַמֵּא Leviticus 13:44 2t.; suffix טַמְּאָם Leviticus 15:31, etc. + 4 t. Infinitive; — defile:
1 sexually Genesis 34:5,13,27 (R), Ezekiel 18:6,11,15; Ezekiel 22:11; Ezekiel 33:26; the land by sexual impurities of the people Leviticus 18:28 (H); Israel by spiritual whoredom Ezekiel 23:17.
2 religiously: the land by bloodshed Numbers 35:34 (P); by allowing the dead body of the murderer to hang on the tree over night Deuteronomy 21:23; by idolatry Jeremiah 2:7; Ezekiel 36:17,18; Israel defiled the sacred places by the sacrifice of children Leviticus 20:3 (H), Ezekiel 23:38, and God defiled him thereby Ezekiel 20:26; he defileth the sacred places by idolatry 2Chronicles 36:14; Jeremiah 7:30 = Jeremiah 32:34, Ezekiel 5:11; the holy name of ׳י Ezekiel 43:7,8; Josiah defiled the idolatrous places of worship by destroying them and making them unfit for use 2 Kings 23:8,10,13,16; of Israel defiling idolatrous images Isaiah 30:22, and the nations the temple of God Psalm 79:1.
3 ceremonially: by ceremonial uncleanness, the sacred places Leviticus 15:31; Numbers 19:13,20 (P); the camp Numbers 5:3 (P); the temple by dead bodies Ezekiel 9:7; the Nazirite's head of separation by a death occurring in his presence Numbers 6:9 (P); the people defile themselves (נפשׁתיכם) by creeping things Leviticus 11:44 (P).
4 pronounce or declare ceremonially unclean: the leper Leviticus 13:3,8,11,15,20,22,25,27,30,44 (twice in verse); Leviticus 13:59 (P); unclean animals Leviticus 20:25 (H).
Pu`al Participle נַפְשִׁי לֹא מְטֻמָּאָה Ezekiel 4:14 myself is not polluted.
Hithpa`el Imperfect יִטַּמָּא Leviticus 21:1 4t.; plural יִטַּמְּאוּ Ezekiel 14:11; Ezekiel 37:23; יִטַּמָּ֑אוּ Hosea 9:4; Ezekiel 44:25, etc. + 6 t. Imperfect — reflexive, defile oneself: by eating of an unaccepted peace-offering Hosea 9:4; with בְּ Leviticus 18:24,30 (H), Leviticus 11:43 (P), Ezekiel 14:11; Ezekiel 20:7,18; Ezekiel 37:23; with לְ for a dead person Leviticus 21:1,3,11 (H), Numbers 6:7 (P); by Leviticus 11:24 (P); without preposition Leviticus 21:4 (H), Ezekiel 44:25.
Hothpa`al Perfect אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר חֻטַּמָּ֑אָה Deuteronomy 24:4 after that she has been defiled (sexually); on form see Ges§ 54. 3.
טָמְאָה noun feminine uncleanness (טָֽמְאָה, Bear, seems to rest upon a misinterpretation of the form) Micah 2:10 (so Thes MV SS); of ethical uncleanness, from wrong-doing.