Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 266: ἁμαρτίαἁμαρτία
(from 2 aorist ἁμαρτεῖν
, as ἀποτυχία
), a failing to hit the mark
. In Greek writings (from Aeschylus
down). 1st, an error
of the understanding (cf. Ackermann, Das Christl. im Plato
, p. 59 Anm. 3 (English translation (S. R. Asbury, 1861), p. 57 n. 99)). 2nd, a bad action, evil deed.
In the N. T. always in an ethical sense, and
1. equivalent to τό ἁμαρτάνειν a sinning, whether it occurs by omission or commission, in thought and feeling or in speech and action (cf. Cicero, de fin. 3, 9): Romans 5:12f, 20; ὑφ' ἁμαρτίαν εἶναι held down in sin, Romans 3:9; ἐπιμένειν τῇ ἁμαρτία, Romans 6:1; ἀποθνῄσκειν τῇ ἁμαρτία and ζῆν ἐν αὐτῇ, Romans 6:2; τήν ἁμαρτίαν γινώσκειν, Romans 7:7; 2 Corinthians 5:21; νεκρός τῇ ἁμαρτία Romans 6:11; περί ἁμαρτίας to break the power of sin, Romans 8:3 (cf. Meyer); σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας the body as the instrument of sin, Romans 6:6; ἀπάτη τῆς ἁμαρτίας the craft by which sin is accustomed to deceive, Hebrews 3:13; ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἁμαρτίας (ἀνομίας T Tr text WH text) the man so possessed by sin that he seems unable to exist without it, the man utterly given up to sin, 2 Thessalonians 2:3 (Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3 Note 2). In this sense ἁμαρτία (equivalent to τό ἁμαρτάνειν) as a power exercising dominion over men (sin as a principle and power) is rhetorically represented as an imperial personage in the phrases ἁμαρτία βασιλεύει, κυριεύει, κατεργάζεται, Romans 5:21; Romans 6:12, 14; Romans 7:17, 20; δουλεύειν τῇ ἁμ. Romans 6:6; δοῦλος τῆς ἁμ. John 8:34 (WH brackets; G omits τῆς ἁμ.); Romans 6:17; νόμος τῆς ἁμ. the dictate of sin or an impulse proceeding from it, Romans 7:23; Romans 8:2; δύναμις τῆς ἁμ. 1 Corinthians 15:56; (the prosopopaeia occurs in Genesis 4:7 and, according to the reading ἁμαρτία, in Sir. 27:10). Thus, ἁμαρτία in sense, but not in signification, is the source whence the several evil acts proceed; but it never denotes vitiosity.
2. that which is done wrong, committed or resultant sin, an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in act (ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐστιν ἡ ἀνομία, 1 John 3:4);
a. generally: James 1:15; John 8:46 (where ἁμαρτία must be taken to mean neither error, nor craft by which Jesus is corrupting the people, but sin viewed generally, as is well shown by Lücke at the passage and Ullmann in the Studien und Kritiken for 1842, p. 667ff (cf. his Sündlosigkeit Jesu, p. 66ff (English translation of the 7th edition, p. 71f)); the thought is, 'If anyone convicts me of sin, then you may lawfully question the truth and divinity of my doctrine, for sin hinders the perception of truth'); χωρίς ἁμαρτίας so that he did not commit sin, Hebrews 4:15; ποιεῖν ἁμαρτίαν and τήν ἁμαρτίαν John 8:34; 1 John 3:8; 2 Corinthians 11:7; 1 Peter 2:22; ἔχειν ἁμαρτίαν to have sin as though it were one's odious private property, or to have done something needing expiation, equivalent to to have committed sin, John 9:41; John 15:22, 24; John 19:11; 1 John 1:8 (so αἷμα ἔχειν, of one who has committed murder, Euripides, Or. 514); very often in the plural ἁμαρτίαι (in the Synoptative Gospels the singular occurs but once: Matthew 12:31); 1 Thessalonians 2:16; (James 5:16 L T Tr WH); Revelation 18:4f, etc.; πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν, James 5:20; 1 Peter 4:8; ποιεῖν ἁμαρτίας, James 5:15; also in the expressions ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν, ἀφιέναι τάς ἁμαρτίας, etc. (see ἀφίημι, 1 d.), in which the word does not of itself denote the guilt or penalty of sins, but the sins are conceived of as removed so to speak from God's sight, regarded by him as not having been done, and therefore are not punished. Ἐν ἁμαρτίαις σύ ἐγεννήθης ὅλος thou wast covered all over with sins when thou wast born i. e. didst sin abundantly before thou wast born, John 9:34; ἐν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἀποθνῄσκειν to die loaded with evil deeds therefore unreformed, John 8:24; ἔτι ἐν ἁμαρτίαις εἶναι still to have one's sins, namely, unexpiated, 1 Corinthians 15:17.
b. some particular evil deed: τήν ἁμαρτίαν ταύτην, Acts 7:60; πᾶσα ἁμαρτία, Matthew 12:31; ἁμαρτία πρός θάνατον, 1 John 5:16 (an offence of such gravity that a Christian lapses from the state of ζωή received from Christ into the state of θάνατος (cf. θάνατος, 2) in which he was before he became united to Christ by faith; cf. Lücke, DeWette (especially Westcott, at the passage)).
3. collectively, the complex or aggregate of sins committed either by a single person or by many: αἴρειν τήν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου, John 1:29 (see αἴρω, 3 c.); ἀποθνῄσκειν ἐν τῇ ἁμαρτία John 8:21 (see 2 a. under the end); περί ἁμαρτίας, namely, θυσίας (Winers Grammar, 583 (542): Buttmann, 393 (336)), expiatory sacrifices, Hebrews 10:6 (according to the usage of the Sept., who sometimes so translate the Hebrew חֲטָאָה and חַטָּאת, e. g. Leviticus 5:11; Leviticus 7:27 (37); Psalm 39:7<10> ()); χωρίς ἁμαρτίας having no fellowship with the sin which he is about (?) to expiate, Hebrews 9:28.
4. abstract for the concrete, equivalent to ἁμαρτωλός: Romans 7:7 (ὁ νόμος ἁμαρτία, opposed to ὁ νόμος ἅγιος, Romans 7:12); 2 Corinthians 5:21 (τόν ... ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησεν he treated him, who knew not sin, as a sinner). Cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i. 289ff; (see ἁμάρτημα; Trench, § lxvi.). 10>