apo: from, away fromOriginal Word: ἀπόPart of Speech:
from, away fromDefinition:
from, away from.
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
a preposition and a prim. particleDefinition
from, away fromNASB Translation
after (1), against (4), ago (2), alike* (1), among (2), away (3), away* (1), because (9), before* (1), belonged (1), deserting* (1), distance (1), hereafter* (1), initiative (1), left (1), off (1), once* (1), since (11), since* (3), some (1), way (1).
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 575: ἀπόἀπό
down), preposition with the genitive (Latina
, German von
(cf. English of, off
signifying now separation, now origin. On its use in the N. T., in which the influence of the Hebrew מִן
is traceable, cf. Winer
s Grammar, 864f (342), 369ff (346ff); Buttmann
, 321ff (276ff). (On the neglect of elision before words beginning with a vowel see Tdf.
Proleg., p. 94; cf. Winer
s Grammar, § 5, 1 a.; Buttmann
, p. 10f; WH
's Appendix, p. 146.) In order to avoid repetition we forbear to cite all the examples, but refer the reader to the several verbs followed by this preposition. ἀπό
, then, is used:
I. of separation; and
1. of local separation, after verbs of motion from a place (of departing, fleeing, removing, expelling, throwing, etc., see αἴρω, ἀπέρχομαι, ἀποτινάσσω, ἀποχορέω, ἀφίστημι, φεύγω, etc.): ἀπεσπάσθη ἀπ' αὐτῶν, Luke 22:41; βάλε ἀπό σου, Matthew 5:29f; ἐκβάλω τό καρθος ἀπό (L T Tr WH ἐκ) τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ, Matthew 7:4; ἀφ' (L WH Tr text παῥ (which see I. a.)) ἧς ἐκβεβλήκει δαιμόνια, Mark 16:9; καθεῖλε ἀπό θρόνων, Luke 1:52.
2. of the separation of apart from the whole; where of a whole some part is taken: ἀπό τοῦ ἱματίου, Matthew 9:16; ἀπό μελισσίου κηρίου, Luke 24:42 (R G, but Tr brackets the clause); ἀπό τῶν ὀψαρίων, John 21:10; τά ἀπό τοῦ πλοίου fragments of the ship, Acts 27:44; ἐνοσφίσατο ἀπό τῆς τιμῆς, Acts 5:2; ἐκχέω ἀπό τοῦ πνεύματος, Acts 2:17; ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ' αὐτῶν, Luke 6:13; τινα ἀπό τῶν δύο, Matthew 27:21; ὅν ἐτιμήσαντο ἀπό υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, namely, τινες (R. V. whom certain of the children of Israel did price (cf. τίς, 2 c.); but others refer this to II. 2 d. aa. at the end, which see), Matthew 27:9 (ἐξῆλθον ἀπό τῶν ἱερέων, namely, τινες, 1 Macc. 7:33); after verbs of eating and drinking (usually joined in Greek to the simple genitive of the thing (cf. Buttmann, 159 (139); Winer's Grammar, 198f (186f)): Matthew 15:27; Mark 7:28; πίνειν ἀπό, Luke 22:18 (elsewhere in the N. T. ἐκ).
3. of any kind of separation of one thing from another by which the union or fellowship of the two is destroyed;
a. after verbs of averting, loosening, liberating, ransoming, preserving: see ἀγοράζω, ἀπαλλάσσω, ἀποστρέφω, ἐλευθερόω, θεραπεύω, καθαρίζω, λούω, λυτρόω, λύω, ῤύομαι, σῴζω, φυλάσσω, etc.
b. after verbs of desisting, abstaining, avoiding, etc.: see ἀπέχω, παύω, καταπαύω, βλέπω, προσέχω, φυλάσσομαι, etc.
c. after verbs of concealing and hindering: see κρύπτω, κωλύω, παρακαλύπτω.
d. Concise constructions (cf. especially Buttmann, 322 (277)): ἀνάθεμα ἀπό τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 9:3 (see ἀνάθεμα under the end); λούειν ἀπό τῶν πληγῶν to wash away the blood from the stripes, Acts 16:33; μετανοεῖν ἀπό τῆς κακίας by repentance to turn away from wickedness, Acts 8:22; ἀποθνῄσκειν ἀπό τίνος by death to be freed from a thing, Colossians 2:20; φθείρεσθαι ἀπό τῆς ἁπλότητος to be corrupted and thus led away from singleness of heart, 2 Corinthians 11:3; εἰσακουσθείς ἀπό τῆς εὐλαβείας heard and accordingly delivered from his fear, Hebrews 5:7 (others, heard for, i. e. on account of his godly fear (cf. II. 2 b. below)).
4. of a state of separation, i. e. of distance; and a. of distance of place, — of the local terminus from which: Matthew 23:34; Matthew 24:31, etc.; after μακράν, Matthew 8:30; Mark 12:34; John 21:8; after ἀπέχειν, see ἀπέχω 2; ἀπό ἄνωθεν ἕως κάτω, Mark 15:38; ἀπό μακρόθεν, Matthew 27:55, etc. (cf. Buttmann, 70 (62); Winer's Grammar, § 65, 2). According to later Greek usage it is put before nouns indicating local distance: John 11:18 (ἦν ἐγγύς ὡς ἀπό σταδίων δεκαπέντε about fifteen furlongs off); John 21:8; Revelation 14:20 (Diodorus 1:51 ἐπάνω τῆς πόλεως ἀπό δέκα σχοίνων λίμνην ὠρυξε (also 1, 97; 4, 56; 16, 443; 17, 112; 18, 40; 19, 25, etc.; cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 5): Josephus, b. j. 1, 3, 5 τοῦτο ἀφ' ἑξακοσίων σταδίων ἐντεῦθεν ἐστιν, Plutarch, Aem. Paul c. 18, 5 ὥστε τούς πρώτους νεκρούς ἀπό δυοιν σταδίων καταπέσειν, vit. Oth c. 11, 1 κατεστρατοπέδευσεν ἀπό πεντήκοντα σταδίων, vit. Philop c. 4, 3 ἦν γάρ ἀγρός αὐτῷ ἀπό σταδίων εἴκοσι τῆς πόλεως); cf. Winers Grammar, 557f (518f); (Buttmann, 153 (133)).
b. of distance of Time — of the temporal terminus from which (Latinindea): ἀπό τῆς ὥρας ἐκείνης, Matthew 9:22; Matthew 17:18; John 19:27; ἀπ' ἐκ τῆς ἡμέρας, Matthew 22:46; John 11:53; (ἀπό πρώτης ἡμέρας) Acts 20:18; Philippians 1:5 (L T Tr WH τῆς πρώτης ἡμέρας); ἀφ' ἡμερῶν ἀρχαίων, Acts 15:7; ἀπ' ἐτῶν, Luke 8:43; Romans 15:23; ἀπ' αἰῶνος and ἀπό τῶν αἰώνων, Luke 1:70, etc.; ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, Matthew 19:4, 8, etc.; ἀπό καταβολῆς κόσμου, Matthew 13:35 (L T Tr WH omit κόσμου), etc.; ἀπό κτίσεως κόσμου, Romans 1:20; ἀπό βρέφους from a child, 2 Timothy 3:15; ἀπό τῆς παρθενίας, Luke 2:36; ἀφ' ἧς (namely, ἡμέρας) since, Luke 7:45; Acts 24:11; 2 Peter 3:4; ἀφ' ἧς ἡμέρας, Colossians 1:6, 9; ἀφ' οὗ equivalent to ἀπό τούτου ὅτε (cf. Buttmann, 82 (71); 105 (82)), Luke 13:25; Luke 24:21; Revelation 16:18 (Herodotus 2, 44; and in Attic); ἀφ' οὗ after τρία ἔτη, Luke 13:7 T Tr WH; ἀπό τοῦ νῦν from the present, henceforth, Luke 1:48; Luke 5:10; Luke 12:52; Luke 22:69; Acts 18:6; 2 Corinthians 5:16; ἀπό τότε, Matthew 4:17; Matthew 16:21; Matthew 26:16; Luke 16:16; ἀπό πέρυσι since last year, a year ago, 2 Corinthians 8:10; 2 Corinthians 9:2; ἀπό πρωι<, Acts 28:23; cf. Winers Grammar, 422 (393); (Buttmann, 320 (275)); Lob. ad Phryn., pp. 47, 461.
c. of distance of Order or Rank — of the terminus from which in any succession of things or persons: ἀπό διετοῦς (namely, παιδός) καί κατωτέρω, Matthew 2:16 (τούς Λευίτας ἀπό εἰκοσαετοῦς καί ἐπάνω, Numbers 1:20; 2 Esdr. 3:8); ἀπό Ἀβραάμ ἕως Δαυειδ Matthew 1:17; ἕβδομος ἀπό Ἀδάμ, Jude 1:14; ἀπό μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου, Acts 8:10; Hebrews 8:11; ά᾿ρχεσθαι ἀπό τίνος, Matthew 20:8; Luke 23:5; Luke 24:27; John 8:9; Acts 8:35; Acts 10:37.
II. of origin; whether of local origin, the place whence; or of causal origin, the cause from which.
1. of the place whence anything is, comes, befalls, is taken;
a. after verbs of coming; see ἔρχομαι, ἥκω, etc.: ἀπό (L Tr WH ἀπ') ἀγορᾶς namely, ἐλθόντες, Mark 7:4; ἄγγελος ἀπ' (τοῦ) οὐρανοῦ, Luke 22:43 (L brackets WH reject the passage); τόν ἀπ' οὐρανῶν namely, λαλοῦντα, Hebrews 12:25, etc.; of the country, province, town, village, from which anyone has originated or proceeded (cf. Winers Grammar, 364 (342); Buttmann, 324 (279)): Matthew 2:1; Matthew 4:25; John 1:44 (); ; μία ἀπό ὄρους Σινᾶ, Galatians 4:24. Hence, ὁ or οἱ ἀπό τίνος a native of, a man of, some place: ὁ ἀπό Ναζαρέθ the Nazarene, Matthew 21:11; ὁ ἀπό Ἁριμαθαίας, Mark 15:43; John 19:38 (here G L Tr WH omit ὁ); οἱ ἀπό Ἰόππης, Acts 10:23; οἱ ἀπό Ἰταλίας the Italians, Hebrews 13:24 (cf. Winers Grammar, § 66, 6). A great number of examples from secular writings are given by Wieseler, Untersuch. üb.
d. Hebräerbr. 2te Hälfte, p. 14f.
b. of the party or society from which one has proceeded, i. e. a member of the sect or society, a disciple or votary of it: οἱ ἀπό τῆς ἐκκλησίας, Acts 12:1; οἱ ἀπό τῆς αἱρέσεως τῶν Φαρισαίων, Acts 15:5 (as in Greek writings: οἱ ἀπό τῆς στοάς, οἱ ἀπό τῆς Ἀκαδημιας, etc.).
c. of the material from which a thing is made: ἀπό τριχῶν καμήλου, Matthew 3:4 (Winers Grammar, 370 (347); Buttmann, 324 (279)).
d. tropically, of that from or by which a thing is known: ἀπό τῶν καρπῶν ἐπιγινώσκειν, Matthew 7:16, 20 (here Lachmann ἐκ τῶν καρπῶν, etc.) (Lysias in Andocides (<405 b.c.="">) § 6; Aeschines adverb Tim., p. 69, Reiske edition); μανθάνειν ἀπό τίνος to learn from the example of anyone, Matthew 11:29; Matthew 24:32; Mark 13:28; but in Galatians 3:2; Colossians 1:7; Hebrews 5:8, μανθάνειν ἀπό τίνος means to learn from one's teaching or training (cf. Buttmann, 324 (279)
c.; Winers Grammar, 372 (348)).
e. after verbs of seeking, inquiring, demanding: ἀπαίτειν, Luke 12:20 (Tr WH αἰτεῖν); ζητεῖν, 1 Thessalonians 2:6 (alternating there with ἐκ (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 50, 2)); ἐκζήτειν, Luke 11:50f; see αἰτέω.
2. of causal origin, or the Cause; and a. of the material cause, so called, or of that which supplies the material for the maintenance of the action expressed by the verb: so those verbs.
b. of the cause on account of which anything is or is done, where commonly it ran be rendered for (Latinprae, German vor): οὐκ ἠδύνατο ἀπό τοῦ ὄχλου, Luke 19:3; οὐκέτι ἴσχυσαν ἀπό τοῦ πλήθους, John 21:6 (Judith 2:20); ἀπό τοῦ δόξης τοῦ φωτός, Acts 22:11; (here many would bring in Hebrews 5:7 (Winers Grammar, 371 (348); Buttmann, 322 (276)), see I. 3 d. above).
c. of the moving or impelling cause (Latinex,prae; German aus,vor), for, out of: ἀπό τῆς χαρᾶς αὐτοῦ ὑπάγει, Matthew 13:44; ἀπό τοῦ φοβοῦ for fear, Matthew 14:26; Matthew 28:4; Luke 21:26. Hebraistically: φοβεῖσθαι ἀπό τίνος (מִן יָרֵא), Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:4; φεύγειν ἀπό τίνος (מִן נוּס), to flee for fear of one, John 10:5; Mark 14:52 (R G, but L Tr marginal reading brackets ἀπ' αὐτῶν); Revelation 9:6; cf. φεύγω and Winers Grammar, 223 (209f).
d. of the efficient cause, viz. of things from the force of which anything proceeds, and of persons from whose will, power, authority, command, favor, order, influence, direction, anything is to be sought; aa. in general: ἀπό τοῦ ὕπνου by force of the sleep, Acts 20:9; ἀπό σου σημεῖον, Matthew 12:38; ἀπό δόξης εἰς δόξαν, 2 Corinthians 3:18 (from the glory which we behold for ourselves (cf. Winer's Grammar, 254 (238)) in a mirror, goes out a glory in which we share, cf. Meyer at the passage); ἀπό κυρίου πνεύματος by the Spirit of the Lord (yet cf. Buttmann, 343 (295)), ibid.; ὄλεθρον ἀπό προσώπου τοῦ κυρίου destruction proceeding from the (incensed, wrathful) countenance of the Lord, 2 Thessalonians 1:9 (on this passage, to be explained after Jeremiah 4:26 the Sept., cf. Ewald); on the other hand, ἀνάψυξις ἀπό προσώπου τοῦ κυρίου, Acts 3:20 (19); ἀπεκτάνθησαν ἀπό (Rec. ὑπό) τῶν πληγῶν, Revelation 9:18. ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ, ἀφ' ἑαυτῶν, ἀπ' ἐμαυτοῦ, an expression especially common in John, of himself (myself, etc.), from his own disposition or judgment, as distinguished from another's instruction (cf. Winer's Grammar, 372 (348)): Luke 12:57; Luke 21:30; John 5:19, 30; John 11:51; John 14:10; John 16:13; John 18:34 (L Tr WH ἀπό σεαυτοῦ); 2 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 10:7 (T Tr WH ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ (see ἐπί A. I. 1 c.)); of one's own will and motion, as opposed to the command and authority of another: John 7:17f, 28; John 8:42; John 10:18 (Numbers 16:28); by one's own power: John 15:4; by one's power and on one's own judgment: John 8:28; examples from secular authors are given in Kypke, Observ. i., p. 391. (Cf. εὐχήν ἔχοντες ἀφ' (others, ἐφ' see ἐπί A. I. 1 f.) ἑαυτῶν, Acts 21:23 WH text) after verbs of learning, knowing, receiving, ἀπό is used of him to whom we are indebted for what we know, receive, possess (cf. Winers Grammar, 370 (347) n., also De verb. comp. etc. Part ii., p. 7f; Buttmann, 324 (279); Meyer on 1 Corinthians 11:23; per contra Lightfoot on Galatians 1:12): ἀκούειν, Acts 9:13; 1 John 1:5; γινώσκειν, Mark 15:45; λαμβάνειν, Matthew 17:25; 1 John 2:27; 1 John 3:22 L T Tr WH; ἔχειν, 1 John 4:21; 2 Corinthians 2:3, etc.; παραλαμβάνειν, 1 Corinthians 11:23; δέχεσθαι, Acts 28:21; respecting μανθάνειν see above, II. 1 d.; λατρεύω τῷ Θεῷ ἀπό προγόνων after the manner of the λατρεία received from my forefathers (cf. Winers Grammar, 372 (349); Buttmann, 322 (277)), 2 Timothy 1:8. γίνεται μοι, 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 4:5; χάρις ἀπό Θεοῦ or τοῦ Θεοῦ, from God, the author, bestower, Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; Galatians 1:3, and often; καί τοῦτο ἀπό Θεοῦ, Philippians 1:28. ἀπόστολος ἀπό etc., constituted an apostle by authority and commission, etc. (cf. Winer's Grammar, 418 (390)), Galatians 1:1. after πάσχειν, Matthew 16:21; (akin to this, according to many, is Matthew 27:9 ὅν ἐτιμήσαντο ἀπό τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, R. V. marginal reading whom they priced on the part of the sons of Israel; but see in I. 2 above). bb. When ἀπό is used after passives (which is rare in the better Greek authors, cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 222ff; (Buttmann, 325 (280); Winer's Grammar, 371 (347f))), the connection between the cause and the effect is conceived of as looser and more remote than that indicated by ὑπό, and may often be expressed by on the part of (German vonSeiten) (A. V. generally of]: ἀπό τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀποδευειγμενον approved (by miracles) according to God's will and appointment, Acts 2:22; ἀπό Θεοῦ πειράζομαι the cause of my temptation is to be sought in God, James 1:13; ἀπεστερημένος (T Tr WH ἀφυστερημενος) ἀφ' ὑμῶν by your fraud, James 5:4; ἀποδοκιμάζεσθαι, Luke 17:25; (ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπό τῶν τέκνων, Luke 7:35 according to some; see δικαιόω, 2); τόπον ἡτοιμασμένον ἀπό τοῦ Θεοῦ by the will and direction of God, Revelation 12:6; ὀχλούμενοι ἀπό (Rec. ὑπό, (see ὀχλέω)) πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων, Luke 6:18 (whose annoyance by diseases ((?) cf. Luke 6:17) proceeded from unclean spirits (A. V. vexed (troubled) with, etc.)); ἀπό τῆς σαρκός ἐσπιλωμένον, by touching the flesh, Jude 1:23; (add Luke 1:26 T Tr WH, ἀπεστάλη ὁ ἄγγελος ἀπό (R G L ὑπό) τοῦ Θεοῦ.) As in secular authors, so also in the N. T. the manuscripts sometimes vary between ἀπό and ὑπό: e. g. in Mark 8:31; (Luke 8:43); Acts 4:36; (); Romans 13:1; (); Revelation 9:18; see Winers Grammar, 370f (347f); Buttmann, 325f (280f); (cf. Vincent and Dickson, Modern Greek, 2nd edition, Appendix, § 41). 405>
III. Phrases having a quasi-adverbial force, and indicating the manner or degree in which anything is done or occurs, are the following: ἀπό τῶν καρδιῶν ὑμῶν, from your hearts, i. e. willingly and sincerely, Matthew 18:35; ἀπό μέρους in part, 2 Corinthians 1:14; 2 Corinthians 2:5; Romans 11:25; Romans 15:24; ἀπό μιᾶς namely, either φωνῆς with one voice, or γνώμης or ψυχῆς with one consent, one mind, Luke 14:18 (cf. Kuinoel at the passage; (Winer's Grammar, 423 (394); 591 (549f); yet see Lob. Paralip., p. 363)).
IV. The extraordinary construction ἀπό ὁ ὤν (for Rec. ἀπό τοῦ ὁ) καί ὁ ἦν καί ὁ ἐρχόμενος, Revelation 1:4, finds its explanation in the fact that the writer seems to have used the words ὁ ὤν κτλ. as an indeclinable noun, for the purpose of indicating the meaning of the proper name יהוה; cf. Winers Grammar, § 10, 2 at the end; (Buttmann, 50 (43)).
V. In composition ἀπό indicates separation, liberation, cessation, departure, as in ἀποβάλλω, ἀποκόπτω, ἀποκυλίω, ἀπολύω, ἀπολύτρωσις, ἀπαλγέω, ἀπέρχομαι; finishing and completion, as in ἀπαρτίζω, ἀποτελέω; refers to the pattern from which a copy is taken, as in ἀπογράφειν, ἀφομοιουν, etc.; or to him from whom the action proceeds, as in ἀποδείκνυμι, ἀποτολμάω, etc.
hereafter, ago, at, because of, before.
A primary particle; "off," i.e. Away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literal or figurative) -- (X here-)after, ago, at, because of, before, by (the space of), for(-th), from, in, (out) of, off, (up-)on(-ce), since, with. In composition (as a prefix) it usually denotes separation, departure, cessation, completion, reversal, etc.