I. עָזַב213 verb leave, forsake, loose
(Late Hebrew id.
(rare); Arabic be remote, absent, depart
, Assyrian ezêbu
, Shaph`el ušezib
, compare Biblical Aramaic שֵׁיזֵב
; — Ethiopic widowed
Qal Perfect3masculine singular ׳ע Genesis 24:27 +, suffix עֲזָבַנִי Isaiah 49:14; Psalm 38:11; 3feminine singular עָזָ֑בָה Ezekiel 23:8; 1singular suffix עֲזַבְתִּיךְ Isaiah 54:7; 2feminine plural עֲזַבְתֶּן Exodus 2:20, etc.; Imperfect3masculine singular יַעֲזֹב Isaiah 55:7 +, יַעֲזָבֿ Genesis 2:24, suffix 1singular וַיַּעַזְבֵנִי 1 Samuel 30:13, etc.; Imperative עֲזֹב Psalm 37:8, עָזְבָה Jeremiah 49:11, עִזְבוּ Jeremiah 48:28; Proverbs 9:6, etc.; Infinitive absolute עָזוֺב Jeremiah 14:5, עָזֹב Exodus 23:5; construct עֲזֹב Genesis 44:22 +, suffix עָזְבֵךְ Jeremiah 2:17 +, etc.; Participle active עֹזֵב Proverbs 10:17 +, construct עֹזְבִי (Ges§ 90l); feminine construct עֹזֶבֶת Proverbs 2:17 etc.; passive עָזוּב Deuteronomy 32:26 +, etc.; —
1 leave, with accusative (on order of meanings compare NöZMG. xl (1886). 726):
a. = depart from, accusative of person Genesis 44:22 (twice in verse) (J), 2 Kings 2:2,4,6; 2 Kings 4:30; Numbers 10:31 (P), Ruth 1:16; Jeremiah 9:1 ("" הָלַךְ מֵאֵת); accusative of location 1 Kings 8:6; Jeremiah 25:28 (׳י as lion leaving lair); with מִן local intransitive (strangely) Jeremiah 18:14 (of snow).
b. leave behind, accusative of person Exodus 2:20 (J), 2 Samuel 15:16 (+ infinitive), Ezekiel 24:21; accusative of thing + בְּיַד Genesis 39:12,13, + אֶצְלִי Genesis 39:15; Genesis 39:18 (all J); + ב location Genesis 50:8 (J); accusative of person and thing Exodus 9:21 (J).
c. leave in the presence of (לִפְנֵי) 1 Chronicles 16:37 (ל of accusative, compare ל 3b above), 2 Chronicles 28:14.
d. leave in safety, וְאָ֫נָה חַעַזְבוּ כְּבוֺדְכֶם Isaiah 10:3.
e. leave in a given condition, situation, אֹתוֺ בְמַחֲלֻיִים ׳ע2Chronicles 24:25 they left him in great suffering; with adverb accusative Ezekiel 23:29; a city מְּתוּחָה Joshua 8:17.
f. leave undisturbed, let alone Ruth 2:16.
g. leave unexercised, Genesis 24:27 pregnantly he hath not left his kindness and his faithfulness from (being) with (מֵעִם) my master; so חַסְדּוֺ אֶתֿ ׳ע Ruth 2:20 (both of ׳י); חֵמָה ׳ע Psalm 37:8 ("" הֶרֶף מֵאַף).
h. leave in the hand of, entrust to, accusative of thing + בְּיַד Genesis 39:6 (J), + אֶלֿ Job 39:11 ("" בָּטַח בְּ), + עַלֿ Psalm 10:14 (accusative omitted, his cause). — So also possibly (with לְ) Nehemiah 3:34 (reading לֵאלֹהִים for ᵑ0 לָהֶם), but text probably otherwise corrupt.
i. leave to (ל) one (unaided), וְחָדַלְתָּ֫ מֵעֲזֹב לוֺ Exodus 23:5 a (E) thou shalt refrain from leaving it (that is, the affair) to him; compare תַּעֲזֹב לָאָרֶץ בֵּיצֶיהָ Job 39:14 (of ostrich).
j. leave over, remaining, accusative of person Joshua 2:21 (JE); accusative of thing + לְ person Leviticus 19:10; Leviticus 23:22 (H), Malachi 3:19.
k. leave = have nothing to do with Proverbs 9:6.
2 leave, abandon, forsake:
a. abandon, accusative of thing: (1) land, house, city, tent, etc., 1 Samuel 31:7 = 1 Chronicles 10:7; 2 Kings 7:7; Jeremiah 9:18; Jeremiah 48:28; Jeremiah 51:9; 2Chronicles 11:14; Isaiah 17:9 (+ מִמְּנֵי of enemy); passive participle of cities Isaiah 17:2; Jeremiah 4:29; Zephaniah 2:4, compare עֲזוּבָה Isaiah 17:9 participle = substantive = deserted region. (2) oxen 1 Kings 19:20, idol-images (+ שָׁם) 2 Samuel 5:21 = 1 Chronicles 14:12, flock Zechariah 11:17; passive participle of eggs Isaiah 10:14.
b. forsake, (1) human subject and object: Genesis 2:24 (J; a man his parents), 1 Samuel 30:13; Joshua 22:3 (D), Jeremiah 49:11; Psalm 27:10 (parent a child), Proverbs 2:17 (wife her husband, אַלוּף), compare עֲזוּבָה אִשָּׁה Isaiah 54:6, and ׳ע of personified Zion Isaiah 60:15; Isaiah 62:4. (2) an animal its young Jeremiah 14:5 (object om).
c. = neglect, Levite Deuteronomy 12:19; Deuteronomy 14:27, poor Job 20:19.
d. especially (1) figurative of forsaking God (׳י), apostatizing, Judges 10:10; Deuteronomy 28:20; Deuteronomy 31:16; Jeremiah 1:16 38t. (often Jeremiah and later); + Jonah 2:9 (object חַסְדָּם, i.e. God, see חֶסֶד
II); with ל + infinitive only עָֽזְבוּ לִשְׁמֹר ׳אֶתיֿ Hosea 4:10 (Oort We Now doubt לִשְׁמֹר). (2) object ׳יs law, commands, covenant, etc., Deuteronomy 29:24; 1 Kings 19:10,14 14t.; house of ׳י2Chronicles 24:18; Nehemiah 10:40. (3) forsake, fail to follow, obey advice, instruction, wisdom, reproof: 1 Kings 12:8,13 2Chronicles 10:8,13; Proverbs 2:13; Proverbs 4:2,6; Proverbs 10:17; Proverbs 15:10; Proverbs 27:10. (4) but also of forsaking idols Ezekiel 20:8, sins of various kinds Ezekiel 23:8; Isaiah 55:7; Proverbs 28:13 (object omitted; + מוֺדֶה confess); הַמַּשָּׁא usury Nehemiah 5:10.
e. of God's forsaking, abandoning men: Deuteronomy 31:17; Isaiah 42:16; Isaiah 49:14; Isaiah 54:7; 2Chronicles 12:5; Ezra 9:9; Psalm 9:11; Psalm 22:2 8t. Psalms; + בְּיַד Nehemiah 9:28; Psalm 37:33; Psalm 16:10 thou wilt not abandon my soul לִשְׁאוֺל; of temporary abandonment 2 Chronicles 32:31 (+ infinitive of purpose); etc. (34 t. in all); + Jeremiah 12:7 (׳י abandoning his house).
f. of God's leaving, i.e. ceasing to regard, the earth, thus giving impunity to crime, Ezekiel 8:12; Ezekiel 9:9.
g. of strength (כֹּחַ) forsaking one Psalm 38:11, courage (לֵב) Psalm 40:13, kindness and faithfulness (חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת) Proverbs 3:3.
3 let loose, set free, let go עִמּוֺ עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב Exodus 23:5b (E) thou shalt by all means free it (that is, the beast) with him, (aid him to set it free; on sense, compare Deuteronomy 22:4; DHM below II.עזב); עָצוּר וְעָזוּב shut up and freed, proverb. phrase, = all classes of people Deuteronomy 32:36; 1 Kings 14:10; 1 Kings 21:21; 2 Kings 9:8; 2 Kings 14:26 (exact meaning dubious; probably either = bond and free, or [see RSSem i. 437, 2nd ed. 456] under taboo and free from it); let go Job 20:13 (c, accusative of wickedness as morsel in mouth); let loose my complaint Job 10:1 (עָלַי apud me, compare עַל
II 1 d); אֶעֶזְבָה פָנַי Job 9:27 I will loosen, relax, my face, (compare Thes De Me Stu Di BuhlLex Bu; > abandon my [gloomy] countenance AV RV SS BaeKau Du).
Niph`al Perfect3masculine singular נֶעֱזַב Nehemiah 13:11; 3feminine singular נֶעֱזָבָ֫ה Isaiah 62:12; Imperfect3feminine singular תֵּעָזֵב Isaiah 7:16; Leviticus 26:43, תֵּעָ֣זַב Job 18:4; 3masculine plural יֵעָֽזְבוּ Isaiah 18:6; Participle נֶעֱזָב Isaiah 27:10; Psalm 37:25; feminine plural נֶעֱזָבוֺת Ezekiel 36:4; —
1 be left to (לְ), i.e. to the possession of, Isaiah 18:6.
2 be forsaken, of house of God Nehemiah 13:11, a city Ezekiel 36:4; Isaiah 27:10 ("" מְשֻׁלָּח), Isaiah 62:12; the earth Job 18:4, land Isaiah 7:16; Leviticus 26:43 (+ מִן of exiles); of man Psalm 37:25.
Qal passive, see Ges§ 52e) be deserted, of city: Perfect3masculine singular הֲמוֺן עִיר עֻזָּב֫ Isaiah 32:14 ("" נֻטָּ֔שׁ); 3 feminine singular עֻזְּבָה Jeremiah 49:25.
II. [עָזַב] verb restore, repair (?) (compare perhaps Sabean עדֿב restore, SabDenkm90 DHMÖster. Monatsschr. f. d. Orient 1885, 226; also Late Hebrew מַעֲזִיבָה restoration, erection LevyNHWB iii. 186, Arabic , building-stone KremerBeitr. ii. 18); —
Qal Imperfect3masculine plural וַיַּעַזְבוּ Nehemiah 3:8 and they repaired (?) Jerusalem as far as the broad wall; > paved GuZPV viii (1885), 282 f., or from √ I.עזב (see views in Be Ryle).
עַזְבּוּק, עַזְגָּד, עֻזָּה see עזז.