Brown-Driver-Briggs אֲשֶׁר particle of relation
; origin dubious:
1 according to TsepreghiDiss. Lugd. p. 171 MühlauBö. Lb. ii. 79 n. StaMorg. Forsch. 1875, 188; Lb. § 167 HomZMG 1878, 708 ff. Müll§ 153 SayceHebraica. ii. 51 LagM. i. 255 & especially KraeHebraica. vi. 298 ff, originally a substantive 'place' = footstep, mark, (do.), אֲתַר, place, Assyrian ašru, used (see Kraetz.) both as a substantive 'there, where,' and as a relative of place 'where': in Hebrew this development has advanced further, and it has become a relative sign Generally. The chief objection to this explanation is that it would isolate Hebrew from the other Semitic languages, in which pronouns are formed regularly from demonstrative roots (compare also NöZMG 1886, 738).
2 according to PhiSt. C. 73 SperlingNota Rel. im Hebr. 1876, 15-22 for אֲשֶׁל, developed from the relative שׁ (q. v.) by (1) the prefixing of either a merely prosthetic א, or, better, a pronominal א (giving rise to אש, the form of the relative in Phoenician), and (2) the addition of the demonstrative root ל [found also in אֵל, אֵלָּה, הַלָּזֶה (q. v.), he who, who (plural)]: the main objection to this explanation is the change of ל to ר, which is hardly rendered probable by the compare of Syriac by side of ᵑ7 הָלְכָּא. 1 seems preferable, the primitive root having acquired different significations in the different Semitic languages, and having been weakened in Hebrew to a mere particle of relation). A
sign of relation, bringing the clause introduced by it into relation with an antecedent clause. As a rule אֲשֶׁר is a mere
connecting link, and requires to be supplemented (see the grammars) by a pronominal affix, or other word, such as שָׁם, defining the nature of the relation more precisely: e.g. Genesis 1:11 אֲשֶׁר זַרֵעוֺבֿוֺ literally as to which, its seed is in it = in which is its seed, Psalm 1:4 like the chaff אֲשֶׁרתִּֿדְּפֶנּוּ רוּחַ as to which, the wind drives it = which the wind drives, etc.; & so אֲשֶׁרשָׁ֗֗֗ם = where, אֲשֶׁרמִ֗֗֗שָּׁם = whence, Genesis 2:11; Genesis 3:23; Genesis 20:13 etc. Sometimes also (see below) the relation expressed by it is specifically temporal, local causal, etc. More particularly
1 it includes its pronominal antecedent, whether in the nominative or oblique cases, as Numbers 22:6 וַאֲשֶׁר תָּאֹר יוּאָר and he whom thou cursest is cursed, Exodus 4:12 and I will teach thee אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר that which thou shalt say; and with particles or prepositions, as אֵת אֲשֶׁר (according to the context) him who . . ., those who . . ., that which . . .; לַאֲשֶׁר to him who . . . Genesis 43:16, to those who . . . Genesis 47:24, to that which Genesis 27:8; מֵאֲשֶׁר Judges 16:30; 2 Samuel 18:18 than those whom; Leviticus 27:24 לַאֲשֶׁר קָנָהוּ מֵאִתּוֺ to him from whom he bought it, Numbers 5:7; Isaiah 24:2 כַּאֲשֶׁר נשֶׁא בוֺ like him against whom there is a creditor.
2 instances of אֲשֶׁר followed by a pronominal affix, or by שָׁם, שָֽׁמָּה, מִשָּׁם, are so common that the examples cited above will be sufficient. Very rarely there occurs the anomalous construction עִם אֲשֶׁר Genesis 31:32 for אֲשֶׁר עִמּוֺ (see Genesis 44:9), בַּאֲשֶׁר Isaiah 47:12 for אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם, לַאֲשֶׁר for אֲשֶׁרלָ֗֗֗הֶם Ezekiel 23:40: Psalm 119:49 see under על אשׁר. It is followed by the pronoun in the nominative, in the following cases: — (a) immediately, mostly before an adjective or participle, Genesis 9:3 all moving things אֲשֶׁר הוּאחַֿי which are living, Leviticus 11:26; Numbers 9:13; Numbers 14:8,27; Numbers 35:31; Deuteronomy 20:20; 1 Samuel 10:19 (see Dr) 2 Kings 25:19 ("" Jeremiah 52:25 היה) Jeremiah 27:9; Ezekiel 43:19; Haggai 1:9; Ruth 4:15; Nehemiah 2:18; Ecclesiastes 7:26; before a verb 2 Kings 22:13 (omitted 2 Chronicles 34:21). (b) in a negative sentence, at the end: Genesis 7:2; Genesis 17:12; Numbers 17:5; Deuteronomy 17:15 אֲשֶׁר לֹא אָחִיךָ הוּא who is not thy brother, Deuteronomy 20:15; Judges 19:12; 1 Kings 8:41 "" 1 Kings 9:20 "". N.B. Psalm 16:3 אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ הֵ֑מָּה is an unparalleled expression for 'who are in the land'; read ׳אֲשֶׁר בָּאָ֑רֶץ הֵמָּה אַדִּירֵי וג 'the saints that are in the land, they (המה) are the nobles, in whom,' etc.
3 sometimes (though rarely) the defining adjunct is a pronoun of 1 or 2 person as well as of 3 person. In such cases it is strictly to be rendered I who . . ., thou who, etc.; Hosea 14:4 אֲשֶׁרבְּֿךָ יְרֻחַם יָתוֺם thou by whom the fatherless is compassionated ! Jeremiah 31:32 I, whose covenant they brake, Jeremiah 32:19; Isaiah 49:23; Job 37:17f. thou whose garments are warm . . ., canst thou ? etc., Psalm 71:19; Psalm 71:20; Psalm 144:12 we whose sons, etc., Psalm 139:15 my frame was not hidden from thee, אֲ֯שֶׁרעֻֿשֵּׂיתִי בַסֵּתֶר I who was wrought in secret (= though I was wrought in secret), Exodus 14:13 for ye who have seen the Egyptians to-day, — ye shall not see them again for ever! (compare Psalm 41:9).
4 the defining pron. adjunct is dispensed with —
a. when אֲשֶׁר represents the simple subject of a sentence, or the direct object of a verb: so constantly, as Genesis 2:1 the work אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה which he made, Genesis 3:3 the tree אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֺךְ הַגָּן which is in the midst of the garden, etc.
b. after words denoting time, place, or manner, so that אֲשֶׁר then becomes equivalent to when, where, why: (a) Genesis 6:4 אַחֲרֵי כֵן אֲשֶׁר afterwards, when, etc. (compare 2 Chronicles 35:20) Genesis 45:6 there are still 5 years אֲשֶׁר אֵין חָרִישׁ when there shall be no plowing, Joshua 14:10; 1 Kings 22:25; after יוֺם or הַיּוֺם Deuteronomy 4:10; Judges 4:14; 1 Samuel 24:5 (see Dr) 2 Samuel 19:25; Jeremiah 20:14 and elsewhere; similarly Genesis 40:13. (β) Genesis 35:13 בַּמָּקוֺם אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אִתּוֺ in the place where he spake with him, Genesis 35:14; Genesis 39:20; Numbers 13:27; Numbers 22:26; Deuteronomy 1:31 in the desert which thou sawest, where (accents Ke Di), Deuteronomy 8:15; 1 Kings 8:9 (unless לוּחוֺת הַבְּרִית has here fallen out: see ᵐ5 & Deuteronomy 9:9) Isaiah 55:11; Isaiah 64:10; Psalm 84:4. So (γ) in אֶל אֲשֶׁר to (the place) which (or whither) Exodus 32:34; Ruth 1:16; אֶלכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר to every (place) whither Joshua 1:16; Proverbs 17:8; בַּאֲשֶׁר in (the place) where Judges 5:27; Judges 17:8,9; 1 Samuel 23:13; 2 Kings 8:1; Ruth 1:16,17; Job 39:30, once only with שָׁם Genesis 21:17; בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר wheresoever Joshua 1:7,9; Judges 2:15; 1 Samuel 14:47; 1 Samuel 18:5; 2 Samuel 7:7; 2 Kings 18:7; מֵאֲשֶׁר from (the place) where = whencesoever Exodus 5:11; Ruth 2:9; עַלאֲֿשֶׁר to (the place) whither (or which) 2 Samuel 15:20; 1 Kings 18:12; עַלכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר Jeremiah 1:7. (δ) זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר ֗֗֗ this is the reason that or why . . . Joshua 5:4; 1 Kings 11:27.
c. more extreme instances Leviticus 14:22,30,31; Numbers 6:21; Deuteronomy 7:19 (wherewith), Deuteronomy 28:20; 1 Samuel 2:32 (wherein), 1 Kings 2:26; Judges 8:15 (about whom), Isaiah 8:12 (where יאמר would be followed normally by לוֺ), Isaiah 31:6 turn ye to (him as to) whom they have deeply rebelled, Isaiah 47:15; Zephaniah 3:11; Ecclesiastes 3:9; 1 Kings 14:19 (= how).
d. it is dispensed with only in appearance after ׅ׳אֲשֶׁר אָמַר (אָמַרְתִּי וג followed by the words used, its place being really taken by a pronoun in the speech which follows, as Genesis 3:17 the tree as to which I commanded thee saying, Thou shalt not eat from it, Exodus 22:8; Deuteronomy 28:68; Judges 7:4 (זֶה) Judges 8:15 (where the noun repeated takes the place of the pronoun, compare Deuteronomy 9:2) 1 Samuel 9:17 (זֶה):23 +; compare 2 Samuel 11:16; 2 Kings 17:12; 2 Kings 21:4.
5 אֲשֶׁר sometimes in poetry = one who, a man who (men who), ὅστις, οἵτινες, Psalm 24:4; Psalm 55:20; Psalm 95:4; Psalm 95:5; Job 4:19; Job 5:5; Job 9:5 (Hi) Job 15:17.
6 אֲשֶׁר occasionally receives its closer definition by a substantive following it, in other words, its logical antecedent is inserted in the relative clause: (a) in the phrase peculiar to Jeremiah, ׳אֶל יר ׳אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר י that which came (of) the word of ׳י to Jeremiah Jeremiah 14:1; Jeremiah 46:1; Jeremiah 47:1; Jeremiah 49:34 (compare Ew§ 334); (b) Exodus 25:9; Numbers 33:4; 1 Samuel 25:30; 2 Kings 8:12; 2 Kings 12:6 לְכֹל אֲשֶׁריִֿמָּצֵא שָׁם בָּֽדֶק׃ Ezekiel 12:25; compare the Ethiopic usage Di§ 201; (c) (antecedant repeated) Genesis 49:30 = Genesis 50:13, 1 Samuel 25:30 (׳י repeated), Isaiah 54:9 (probably) as to which I sware that, etc., Amos 5:1 which I take up over you (as) a dirge.
7 ׳אֲשֶׁר ל that (belongs, belong, belonged) to, is used
a. either alone or preceded by כָּלֿ to express (all) that (belongs) to, as Genesis 14:23 מִכָּלאֲֿשֶׁרלְֿךָ of all that is thine, Genesis 31:1 מֵאֲשֶׁר לְאָבִינוּ of that which was our father's, Genesis 32:24 & sent over אֶתאֲֿשֶׁרלֿוֺ that which he had, + often
b. as a circumlocution of the Genitive, as Genesis 29:9 עִםהַֿצּאֹן אֲשֶׁר לְאָבִיהָ with the sheep that were her father's, Genesis 40:5; Genesis 47:4; Leviticus 9:8; Judges 6:11; 1 Samuel 25:7 הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁרלְֿךָ, 2 Samuel 14:31 אֶתהַֿחֶלְקָה אֲשֶׁרלִֿי, 2 Samuel 23:8; 1 Kings 1:8,33 עַל הַמִּרְדָּה אֲשֶׁרלִֿי upon mine own mule, 1 Kings 1:49; 1 Kings 4:2; 2 Kings 11:10; 2 Kings 16:13; Ruth 2:21; and especially in the case of a compound expression depending on a single Genitive, as Genesis 23:9; Genesis 40:5; Genesis 41:43 מִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁרלֿוֺ the chariot of the second rank which he had, Exodus 38:30; Judges 3:20; Judges 6:25; 1 Samuel 17:40; 1 Samuel 21:8 אֲבִיר הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל the mightiest of Saul's herdmen, 1 Samuel 24:5 אֶתכְּֿנַףהַֿמְּעִיל אֲשֶׁרלְֿשָׁאוּל, 2 Samuel 2:8 Saul's captain of the host, 1 Kings 10:28; 1 Kings 15:20; 1 Kings 22:31; Jeremiah 52:17; Ruth 4:3.
c. with names of places (especially such as do not readily admit the stative construct) Judges 18:28; Judges 19:14 הַגִּבְעָה אֲשֶׁר לְבִנְיָמִין Gibeah (the hill) of Benjamin, Judges 20:4; 1 Samuel 17:1; 1 Kings 15:27; 1 Kings 16:15; 1 Kings 17:9; 1 Kings 19:3; 2 Kings 14:11. compare שֶׁל (q. v.) which in Rabb, like the Aramaic -דִּיל, , is in habitual use as a mark of the Genitive. — N.B. In Aramaic also דּי, , without ל, expresses the Genitive relation, as מִלְּתָא דִימַֿלְכָּא, literally the word, that of the king = the word of the king. The few apparent cases of a similar use of אשׁר are, however, too foreign to the General usage of the language to be regarded otherwise than as due to textual error: 1 Samuel 13:8 read אֲשֶׁר אָמַר (or שָׂם Exodus 19:5) שְׁמוּאֵל (ᵐ5 εἶπε); 1 Kings 11:25 supply עָשָׂה (ᵐ5 ἣν ἐποίησεν); 2 Kings 25:10 supply אֵת with (as "" Jeremiah 52:14); 2Chronicles 34:22 read וַאֲשֶׁר אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ (compare ᵐ5) and those whom the king appointed (abbreviated from 2 Kings 22:14); compare Ew§ 292 a, b with note.
8 אֲשֶׁר becomes, like Aramaic דּי, , a
conjunction approximating in usage to כִּי: thus
a. = quod, ὅτι, that, subordinating an entire sentence to a verb of knowing, remembering, etc. (a) with אֵת Deuteronomy 9:7 forget not אֵת אֲשֶׁר הִקְצַפְתָּ the fact that (= how) thou provokedst, etc., Deuteronomy 29:15; Joshua 2:10; 1 Samuel 24:11; 1 Samuel 24:19; 2 Samuel 11:20 know ye not אֵת אֲשֶׁריֹֿרוּ how they shoot from off the wall ? 2 Kings 8:12; Isaiah 38:3 #NAME? 1 Kings 14:19; 2 Kings 14:15; 2 Kings 20:20. Of time (peculiarly) 2 Samuel 14:15 עַתָּה אֲשֶׁר now (is it) that . . . Zechariah 8:20 (probably) yet (shall it be) that . . . Zechariah 8:23; compare כִּמְעַט שֶׁ Songs 3:4. (β) without אֵת (not very common, כִּי being usually employed): after יָדַע Exodus 11:7; Ezekiel 20:26 (very strange in Ezekiel: see Hi) Job 9:5 (Ew De Di) Ecclesiastes 8:12, רָאָה Deuteronomy 1:31 (RV) 1 Samuel 18:15, הִתְוַדָּה to confess Leviticus 5:5; Leviticus 26:40 b, הִשְׁבִּיעַ 1 Kings 22:16 (caused to swear that . . .); after a noun Isaiah 38:7 הָאוֺת אֲשֶׁר the sign that . . . ("" 2 Kings 20:9 כִּי): with growing frequency in late Hebrew, 2 Chron 2:7, and especially Nehemiah, Esther: Nehemiah 2:5,10; Nehemiah 7:65 (= Ezra 2:63) Nehemiah 8:14,15; Nehemiah 10:31; Nehemiah 13:1,19,22; Esther 1:19; Esther 2:10; Esther 3:4; Esther 4:11; Esther 6:2; Esther 8:11; Ecclesiastes 3:22 (מֵאֲשֶׁר) Ecclesiastes 5:4; Ecclesiastes 7:18 (with טוֺב: contrast Ruth 2:22) Ruth 2:22; Ruth 2:29; Ruth 8:12; Ruth 8:14; Ruth 9:1; Daniel 1:8 (twice in verse). (γ) prefixed to a direct citation, like כִּי q. v. (= ὅτι recitativum) (rare) 1 Samuel 15:20; 2 Samuel 1:4; 2 Samuel 2:4 (see Dr) Psalm 10:6 (probably), Nehemiah 4:6.
b. it is resolvable into so that: Genesis 11:7 אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ so that they understand not, etc., Genesis 13:16; Genesis 22:14 אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר so that it is said, Exodus 20:26; Deuteronomy 4:10,40 אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לְךָ Deuteronomy 6:3; Deuteronomy 28:27,51; 1 Kings 3:12,13; 2 Kings 9:37; Malachi 3:19.
c. it has a causal force, forasmuch as, in that, since: Genesis 30:18; Genesis 31:49 and Mizpah, אֲשֶׁר אָמַר for that he said, Genesis 34:13,27; Genesis 42:21 we are guilty, אֲשֶׁר רָאִינוּ we who saw (or, in that we saw), Numbers 20:13 Meribah, because they strove there, Deuteronomy 3:24; Joshua 4:7,23; Joshua 22:31; Judges 9:17; 1 Samuel 2:23; 1 Samuel 15:15; 1 Samuel 20:42 go in peace, אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְנוּ forasmuch as we have sworn, 1 Samuel 25:26 thou whom (= or, seeing that) ׳י hath withholden, 2 Samuel 2:5 blessed are ye of ׳י, אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם, who (οἵτινες) have done (or in that ye have done), 1 Kings 3:19; 1 Kings 15:5; 2 Kings 12:3; 2 Kings 17:4; 2 Kings 23:26; Jeremiah 16:13; Ecclesiastes 8:11,12 (Hi De Now). Here also belongs its use in אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה since why . . . ? (= lest) Daniel 1:10: see below לָמָּה. On אֲשֶׁר עַל כֵּן forasmuch as Job 34:27 see below כִּי עַל כֵּן.
d. it expresses a condition (rare & peculiar): Leviticus 4:22 אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא in (case) that = when (or if) a ruler sinneth (Leviticus 4:3; Leviticus 4:13; Leviticus 4:37 אִם), Numbers 5:29 (explained differently by Ew§ 334 a), Deuteronomy 11:27 and the blessing אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְעוּ if ye hearken (Deuteronomy 11:28 אִם), Deuteronomy 18:22 Ges, Joshua 4:21 אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁאָלוּן ֗֗֗ when they ask . . ., then . . . (Joshua 4:6 כִּי), Isaiah 31:4. In 1 Kings 8:33 ("" 2 Chronicles 6:24 כִּי, compare Kings 2 Chronicles 6:35; 2 Chronicles 6:37) אֲשֶׁר may be rendered indifferently because or when. Once, similarly, אֵת אֲשֶׁר 1 Kings 8:31 ("" אִם).
e. perhaps (exceptionally) = כַּאֲשֶׁר, as, Jeremiah 33:22; Isaiah 54:9 (followed by כֵּן; but כֵּן q. v. sometimes stands without כאשׁר, & אשׁר may in these passages connect with what precedes); according to some also Jeremiah 48:8; Psalm 106:34 (in a connection where כַּאֲשֶׁר would be more usual: אֲשֶׁר may however be the object of אָמַר). In 1 Samuel 16:7 אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָאָדָם read כַּאֲשֶׁר, see Dr.
f. combined with prepositions, אֲשֶׁר converts them into conjunctions: see below, בַּאֲשֶׁר, כַּאֲשֶׁר, מֵאֲשֶׁר. On its use similarly with (אַחֲרֵי) אַחַר, מִבְּלִי, בַּעֲבוּר, עַל דְּבַר, יַעַן, לְמַעַן, כְּפִי, עַד, עַל, עֵקֶב, מִמְּנֵי, תַּחַת, see these words. — הַאֲשֶׁר, with ה interrogative, occurs once, 2 Kings 6:22. In Deuteronomy 15:14 also read כַּאֲשֶׁר: note ברכך before.
Note1אֲשֶׁר being a connecting link, without any perfectly corresponding equivalent in English, its force is not unfrequently capable of being represented in more than one way. See e.g. 2 Samuel 2:5 (above
8c), Isaiah 28:12 unto whom he said, or for that he said to them.
Note 2. The opinion that אֲשֶׁר has an asseverative force (like כִּי, q. v.), or introduces the apodosis, is not probably, being both alien to its General usage & not required by the passages alleged. Render Isaiah 8:20 either 'Surely according to this word will those speak who have no dawn,' or '. . . will they speak when (compare above
8d Deuteronomy 11:27; Joshua 4:21) they have no dawn.'
בַּאֲשֶׁר 19 a. in (that) which . . . Isaiah 56:4; Isaiah 65:12; Isaiah 66:4 (above
1); Ecclesiastes 3:9 in (that, in) which (4c); Isaiah 47:12 (see
b. adverb in (the place) where: above 4b (γ).
c. conjunction in that, inasmuch as, Genesis 39:9,23; Ecclesiastes 7:2; Ecclesiastes 8:4; compare .
d. Jonah 1:8 בַּאֲשֶׁר לְמִי on account of whom ? (בַּאֲשֶׁר לְ on account of, framed on model of Aramaic בְּדִיל: see below שֶׁל).
כַּאֲשֶׁר see below כְּ.
מֵאֲשֶׁר17 a. from (or than) that which (him, them, etc., that . . .) Genesis 3:11; Exodus 29:27 (twice in verse); Numbers 6:11 (see Leviticus 4:26; Joshua 10:11; Judges 16:30; Isaiah 47:13 +; than that . . . Ecclesiastes 3:22; לְבַד מֵאֲשֶׁר Esther 4:11.
b. adverb from (the place) where: above 4a (β).
c. conjunction from (the fact) that . . ., since Isaiah 43:4.
כַּאֲשֶׁר conjunction according as, as, when (compare for the combined Aramaic כְּדִי, כַּד) —
1 according to that which, according as, as:
a. Genesis 34:12 I will give כאשׁר תאמרו אלי according as ye shall (or may) say unto me, Genesis 44:1; Exodus 8:23; Numbers 22:8; 1 Samuel 2:16; Genesis 34:22 if we are circumcised כאשׁר הם נמולים; Genesis 41:21 כאשׁר בתחלה as at the beginning, so ׳כ בראשׁונה Joshua 8:5,6; 2 Samuel 7:10; Exodus 5:13 ׃כאשׁר בהיות התבן Genesis 7:9 they came in two by two כאשׁר צוה אלהִים, as God commanded Noah; so, or similarly, very often, especially in P, Genesis 7:16; Genesis 8:21; Genesis 12:4; Genesis 17:23; Genesis 21:1 (twice in verse); Exodus 16:24; Exodus 39:1,5,7; Numbers 3:16,42 etc.; ׳כאשׁר דבר י Deuteronomy 1:21; Deuteronomy 2:1; Deuteronomy 6:3,19 #NAME? Deuteronomy.
b. answered, for increased emphasis, by כֵּן (compare כְּ 2d), Genesis 50:12 ויעשׂו כן כאשׁר צִוָּם, Exodus 7:10,20; Genesis 18:5 (J) כן חעשׂח כאשׁר דברת, Exodus 10:10 (iron.), Amos 5:14 (do.); in opposed to order, Judges 1:7 כאשׁר עשׂיתי, כן שׁלם לי, Exodus 7:6 כן עשׂו ׳כאשׁר צוה י, compare Exodus 12:28,50; Exodus 39:43; Numbers 5:4; Numbers 17:26; Numbers 36:10 (all P); with imperfect (frequently) Numbers 2:17 (P) כאשׁר יחנו כן יסעו; of degree = the more. . . the more, Exodus 1:12 וכאשׁר יענּו אתו כן ירבה וכן יפרץ, compare Exodus 17:11 (JE) ׳והיה כאשׁר יריםו֗֗֗גבר ישׁר according as he held up, etc., Israel prevailed; in an oath or solemn promise, Numbers 14:28 אם לא כאשׁר דברתם כן אעשׂה, Deuteronomy 28:63 (Jeremiah 31:28), 1 Kings 1:30; Isaiah 10:11; Isaiah 14:24; Isaiah 52:14f. (see כֵּן 2b).
c. answered by וַ (Dr§ 127 γ) Exodus 16:34; Numbers 1:19.
d. often in similes (followed by imperfect of habit) Exodus 33:11 כאשׁר ידבר אישׁ אל רעהו, Numbers 11:12; Deuteronomy 1:44; Isaiah 9:2; Isaiah 66:20 +, answered by כֵּן Isaiah 31:4; Isaiah 55:10; Isaiah 66:22; Amos 3:12 +; a second verb is, in such cases, in the perfect with וְ consecutive (Dr§ 115) Deuteronomy 22:26; Isaiah 29:8 כאשׁר יחלםו֗֗֗הקיץ, Isaiah 65:8; Amos 5:19.
e. הָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר (compare הָיָה כְּ) to be as if, Job 10:19 כאשׁר לא הייתי אהיה, Zechariah 10:6 והיו כאשׁר לא זנחתים.
2 with a casual force, in so far as, since (German demgemäss dass), Genesis 26:29 if thou doest us no harm כאשׁר לא נגענוך according as, in so far as, we have not touched thee; Numbers 27:14 כאשׁר מריתם פי inasmuch as ye have defied my mouth, Judges 6:27; 1 Samuel 28:18 (answered by על כן), 2 Kings 17:26; Micah 3:4.
3 with a temporal force, when, Genesis 18:33 and Y. went away כאשׁר כלה when he had finished, etc., Genesis 32:3; Genesis 32:32; 1 Samuel 8:6; 2 Samuel 12:21 +; answered by וַּ (Dr§ 127 β), 1 Samuel 6:6; 1 Samuel 12:8; ויהי כאשׁר֗֗ and it came to pass, when . . . Genesis 12:11; Genesis 20:13; Genesis 24:22,52; Exodus 32:19 + often; Genesis 43:14 כאשׁר שׁכלתי שׁכלתי when I am bereaved, I am bereaved ! an expression of resignation, so Esther 4:16 כאשׁר אבדתי אבדתי. Joshua 2:7 אחרי כאשׁר is a 'conflate' reading, omit either אחרי or כ. Of future time, Genesis 27:40; Genesis 40:14 כאשׁר ייטב לך, Hosea 7:12; Ecclesiastes 4:17; Ecclesiastes 5:3, and without a verb Isaiah 23:5 כאשׁר שׁמע למצרים. — Micah 3:3 כאשׁר is simply as that which, Job 29:25 as one who.
שֶׁ, also ( Genesis 6:3 [? see 4a], Judges 5:7 (twice in verse); Songs 1:7; Job 19:29 [?]) שַּׁ , שָׁ in שָׁאַתָּה Judges 6:17, and שְׁ in שְׁהוּא Ecclesiastes 2:22, שְׁהֵם Ecclesiastes 3:18 (elsewhere before guttural שֶׁ, as שֶׁאֲנִי Songs 1:6; Ecclesiastes 2:18, שֶׁאֵין Psalm 146:3, שֶׁהֵם Songs 6:5; Lamentations 4:9, שֶׁעַל Judges 7:12; Judges 8:26, שֶׁרּאֹשִׁי Songs 5:2),
relative particle who, which, that, etc. (constantly in Late Hebrew; Aramaic of Nerab, Ldzb371, 445; Assyrian sha; Phoenician אש (regularly), also sometimes ש (Ldzb227f.): according to Ges Ew§ 181 b Olp. 439 Sta§ 176 e, abbreviated from אֲשֶׁר; more probably (Sperling [see אֲשֶׁר], Köii. 323 f.) an original demonstrative particle), synonym with אֲשֶׁר, but in usage limited to late Hebrew, and passages with north Palestinian colouring, namely Judges 5:7 (twice in verse) [אֲשֶׁר Judges 5:27], Judges 6:17; Judges 7:12; Judges 8:26; 2 Kings 6:11 (see 4c), Jonah 1:7,12; Jonah 4:10 [אֲשֶׁר11t.], Psalm 122:3; Psalm 122:4; Psalm 123:2; Psalm 124:1; Psalm 124:2; Psalm 124:6; Psalm 129:6; Psalm 129:7; Psalm 133:2; Psalm 133:3; Psalm 135:2; Psalm 135:8; Psalm 135:10; Psalm 136:23; Psalm 137:8; Psalm 137:9; Psalm 144:15; Psalm 146:3; Psalm 146:5; Lamentations 2:15,16; Lamentations 4:9; Lamentations 5:18; Ezra 8:20; 1 Chronicles 5:20; 1 Chronicles 27:27; Canticles (uniformly, except in title Songs 1:1); Ecclesiastes (68 t.; אֲשֶׁא89t.); also (dubious) Genesis 6:3; Genesis 49:10 (שֶׁלֹּה ᵐ5 ᵑ6 ᵑ7), Job 19:29; and in the proper name (q. v.) מִישָׁאֵל and מְתוּשָׁאֵל. — In usage, שֶּׁ is in the main parallel with אֲשֶׁר, namely 1 as
pronoun who, which, whom, Judges 7:12 כַּהוֺל שֶׁעַל שְׂפַת הַיָּם (compare חוֺל c), Psalm 122:3; Psalm 124:6 etc.; him whom, that which, etc., Songs 1:7; Songs 3:1; 1 Chronicles 27:27; Ecclesiastes 1:11; Ecclesiastes 6:3 וְרַב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי חַיָּיו and much (verb) is that which his days amount to (Hi De and others), Ecclesiastes 6:10; הוּא שֶּׁ that which Ecclesiastes 1:9 (twice in verse); in the Genitive, אַשְׁרֵי שֶּׁ Psalm 137:8; Psalm 137:9; Psalm 146:5. — On מַהשֶּּֿׁ in Eccl = whatever, what, see מָה 1e b. 2 as a connecting link; = where (compare אֲשֶׁר p. 81, and 4b β), מְקוֺם שֶּׁ Ecclesiastes 1:7; Ecclesiastes 11:3 (compare מְקוֺם אֲשֶׁר Genesis 39:20 +: Ges§ 130c), whither Psalm 122:4 (שֶׁשָּׁם ֗֗֗ ), when Songs 8:8; Ecclesiastes 12:3 בַּיּוֺם שֶּׁ (compare ib.
4b a). 3as a
conjunction (compare אֲשֶׁר 8); — a. that, after רָאָה Ecclesiastes 2:13; Ecclesiastes 3:18, יָרַע Ecclesiastes 1:17; Ecclesiastes 2:14; Ecclesiastes 9:5; Job 19:19 (?), דִּבֶּר Ecclesiastes 2:15, אָמַר Ecclesiastes 8:14, עָשָׂה אוֺת Judges 6:17; as subject of sentence, Ecclesiastes 3:13; Ecclesiastes 5:15; also in the phrases, (a) what is ... that ? Songs 5:9 (usually כִּי; see מָךְ 1d b), מֶה הָיָה שֶּׁ how comes it that ... ? Ecclesiastes 7:10; (b) Songs 3:4 כִּמְעַט שֶׁעָבַרְתּת מֵהֶם hardly (was it) that (German kaum dass) I had passed, etc., Ecclesiastes 7:14 עַל דִּדבְרַת שֶׁלּאֹ יִמְצָא to the intent that ..., Ecclesiastes 5:15 כָּלעֻֿמַּת שֶׁבֶּא exactly as ..., Ecclesiastes 12:9 תֵר שֶׁ besides that, עַד שֶּׁ (עַד ּ Judges 5:7) until that Psalm 123:2; Songs 2:7,17 + (see III. עַד II 1 a a and b; compare Late Hebrew Yoma Songs 5:1), while Songs 1:12 (ib. 2d); עָשָׂהשֶּׁ to make or cause that ..., Ecclesiastes 3:14 (compare Ezekiel 36:27). b. involving a reason (compare אֲשֶׁר 8c), because, since, Songs 1:6 (twice in verse); Songs 5:2; Ecclesiastes 2:18 b. Hence שֵׁלָּמָה Songs 1:7 since why ? = lest (see מָה 4d b). 4 compounds: a. בְּשֶּׁ , i. q. בַּאֲשֶׁר c (p. 84a) in that, seeing that, Ecclesiastes 2:16; also (according to ᵑ0 ᵐ5 ᵑ6 Hu De) Genesis 6:3 בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר because that he also is flesh; but see שָׁגַג. b. כּשֶּׁ , i. q. כַּאֲשֶׁר p. 455: — (a) according as Ecclesiastes 5:14; Ecclesiastes 12:7; (b) when (so often in Late Hebrew, as Ab Ecclesiastes 1:8 (3 t. in verse); Ecclesiastes 1:14) Ecclesiastes 9:12; Ecclesiastes 10:3. c. מִשֶּּׁ , i. q. מֵאֲשֶׁר a (p. 84:a), 2 Kings 6:12 מִי מִשֶּׁלָּנוּ who of those that are ours ? (but Klo KmpKau Benz מְגַלֵּנוּ who betrays us ? compare ᵐ5); Ecclesiastes 5:4 than that (compare מֵאֲשֶׁר Ecclesiastes 3:22), + Ecclesiastes 2:24 (read מִשֶּׁיּאֹכַל with Ew De, etc.; compare Ecclesiastes 3:22). d. שֶׁל, like אֲשֶׁרלְ (אֲשֶׁר 7b), a mark of the Genitive: thrice, adding slight emphasis to the suffix, Songs 1:6 = Songs 8:12 כַּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי my vineyard (literally my vineyard, which is mine), Songs 3:7 מִטָּתוֺ שֶׁלִּשְׁלֹמֹה (so often in Late Hebrew, but without any special emphasis, as Aboth Songs 1:12 הֲוֵי מתלמידיווּ שׁלאֿהרן be of Aaron's disciples, Songs 2:1 שְׂכָרָן שֶׁלמִֿצְוֺת, Songs 2:2; Songs 3:2 הֲוֵי מתפלל בשׁלומהּ שׁלמֿלכות; compare in Syriac, as Luke 6:42 my words, Nö§ 225). And with בְּ, בְּשֶׁל literally through that which belongs to or concerns, pleonastic for on account of (a late, unidiomatic translation of Aramaic בְּרִיל, from בְּ, דִּי, and לְ, as in Onk Genesis 12:13 בדילי on my account, Genesis 30:27; Genesis 39:5 בְּדִיל יוֺסֵף, בְּדִיל מָא on account of what ? Judges 8:1; 2 Samuel 9:1; 1 Kings 11:12,39, etc.), Jonah 1:7 בְּשֶׁלְּמִי on account of whom ? ("" Jonah 1:8 בַּאֲשֶׁר לְמִי; probably a gloss), Jonah 1:12 בְּשֶׁלִּי an account of me (ᵑ7 בְּדִיל מַן, בְּדִילִי); Ecclesiastes 8:17 בְּשֶׁל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲמֹל הָאָדָם לְבַקֵּשׁ on account of (the fact) that (= seeing that) man labours, etc. (unidiomatic translation of Aramaic בְּדִיל דְּ because that, as Genesis 6:3 בְּדִיל דְּאִינוּן בִּסְרָא, Genesis 39:9 בְּרִיל דְּאַתְּ אִיתְּתֵיהּ [for Hebrew בַּאֲשֶׁר אַתְּ אִשְׁתּוֺ]; Palmyrene בדיל די Ldzb233, — in Tariff Genesis 1:4 (CookeN. Semitic Inscr. 320) = ἐπειδή).
[שֹׁא] see [ שׁוֺא].