ATS Bible DictionarySchoolmaster
1 Corinthians 4:15 Galatians 3:24,25, in Greek Paidagogos; a sort of attendant who took the charge of young children, taught them the rudiments of knowledge, and at a suitable age conducted them to and from school. Thus the law was the pedagogue of the nation, and a length conducting them through its types and prophecies to Christ. When a Jew came to a believing knowledge of Christ, this office of the law ceased.
Little is known respecting the schools of the Jews, nor when and how far they took the place of domestic instruction, De 6:7-9 11:18-20. It is probable that elementary education was under the charge of the minister of religion, as well as the instruction of those of riper years. At the time of Christ, it would appear that the Jews in general were able at least to read and write.
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaSCHOOLMASTER
skool'-mas-ter: Galatians 3:24 the King James Version reads: "The law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster." "Schoolmaster" is a translation of paidagogos, literally, "child-leader." This paidagagos was not a teacher but a slave, to whom in wealthy families the general oversight of a boy was committed. It was his duty to accompany his charge to and from school, never to lose sight of him in public, to prevent association with objectionable companions, to inculcate moral lessons at every opportunity, etc. He was a familiar figure in the streets, and the (sour) "face of paidagogos" and "to follow one like a paidagogos" were proverbial expressions. Naturally, to the average boy the paidagogos must have represented the incorporation of everything objectionable. Hence, Paul's figure may be paraphrased: "The law was a paidagogos, necessary but irksome, to direct us until the time of Christ. Then was the time of our spiritual coming-of-age, so that the control of the paidagogos ceased." The word paidagogos was taken over into Aramaic at an early date, and Paul's language; which is hardly that of a mere adult observer, suggests that he had had personal experience with the institution. Wealthy and intensely orthodox Jewish parents living in a Gentile city may well have adopted such a precaution for the protection of their children.
No English word renders paidagogos adequately. "Schoolmaster" is quite wrong, but Revised Version's "tutor" (compare 1 Corinthians 4:15) is little better in modern English.
Burton Scott Easton
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The law so designated by Paul (Galatians 3:24
, 25). As so used, the word does not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the modern page), i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision of a family, taking them to and from the school, being responsible for their safety and manners. Hence the pedagogue was stern and severe in his discipline. Thus the law was a pedagogue to the Jews, with a view to Christ, i.e., to prepare for faith in Christ by producing convictions of guilt and helplessness. The office of the pedagogue ceased when "faith came", i.e., the object of that faith, the seed, which is Christ.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
) The man who presides over and teaches a school; a male teacher of a school.
2. (n.) One who, or that which, disciplines and directs.