Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 3303: μένμέν
, a weakened form of μήν
, and hence, properly a particle of affirmation: truly, certainly, surely, indeed
— its affirmative force being weakened, yet retained most in Ionic, Epic, and Herodotus
, and not wholly lost in Attic and Hellenistic writers (μέν
'confirmative'; cf. 4 Macc. 18:18). Owing to this its original meaning it adds a certain force to the terms and phrases with which it is connected, and thus contrasts them with or distinguishes them from others. Accordingly, it takes on the character of a concessive and very often of a merely distinctive particle, which stands related to a following δέ
or other adversative conjunction, either expressed or understood, and in a sentence composed of several members is so placed as to point out the first member, to which a second, marked by an adversative particle, is added or opposed. It corresponds to the Latinquidem
(i. e. properly,zu Wahre
, i. e. in Wahrheit (in truth)); but often its force cannot be reproduced. Its use in classic Greek is exhibited by Devarius i., p. 122ff, and Klotz on the same ii. 2, p. 656ff; Viger i., p. 531ff, and Hermann on the same, p. 824f; others; Matthiae
, § 622; Kühner, ii., p. 806ff, § 527ff; p. 691ff; § 503; (Jelf
, § 729, 1, 2; § 764ff); Passow
, and Pape
(and Liddell and Scott), under the word.
I. Examples in which the particle μέν is followed in another member by an adversative particle expressed. Of these examples there are two kinds:
1. those in which μέν has a concessive force, and δέ (or ἀλλά) introduces a restriction, correction, or amplification of what has been said in the former member, indeed ... but, yet, on the other hand. Persons or things, or predications about either, are thus correlated: Matthew 3:11, cf. Mark 1:8 (where T Tr WH omit; L brackets μέν); Luke 3:16 (where the meaning is, 'I indeed baptize as well as he who is to come after me, but his baptism is of greater efficacy'; cf. Acts 1:5); Matthew 9:37 and Luke 10:2 (although the harvest is great, yet the laborers are few); Matthew 17:11f (rightly indeed is it said that Elijah will come and work the ἀποκατάστασις, but he has already come to bring about this very thing); Matthew 20:23; Matthew 22:8; Matthew 23:28; John 16:22; John 19:32; Acts 21:39 (although I am a Jew, and not that Egyptian, yet etc.); Acts 22:3 (R); Romans 2:25; Romans 6:11; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 9:24; 1 Corinthians 11:14; 1 Corinthians 12:20 (R G L brackets Tr brackets WH marginal reading); (R. G L brackets); 2 Corinthians 10:10; Hebrews 3:5; 1 Peter 1:20, and often. μέν and δέ are added to articles and pronouns: οἱ μέν ... οἱ δέ, the one indeed ... but the other (although the latter, yet the former), Philippians 1:16f (according to the critical text); ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, the one indeed, but (yet) the other etc. Jude 1:22f; τινες μέν ... τινες δέ καί, Philippians 1:15; with conjunctions: εἰ μέν οὖν, if indeed then, if therefore ... εἰ δέ, but if, Acts 18:14f R G; L T Tr WH (εἰ μέν οὖν ... νυνί δέ, Hebrews 8:4f (here R G εἰ μέν γάρ)); εἰ μέν ... νῦν δέ, if indeed (conceding or supposing this or that to be the case) ... but now, Hebrews 11:15; κἄν μέν ... εἰ δέ μήγε, Luke 13:9; μέν γάρ ... δέ, 1 Corinthians 11:7; Romans 2:25; μέν οὖν ... δέ, Luke 3:18; εἰς μέν ... εἰς δέ, Hebrews 9:6f μέν ... ἀλλά, indeed ... but, although ... yet, Romans 14:20; 1 Corinthians 14:17; μέν ... πλήν, Luke 22:22. (Cf. Winers Grammar, 443 (413); Buttmann, § 149, 12 a.)
2. those in which μέν loses its concessive force and serves only to distinguish, but δέ retains its adversative power: Luke 11:48; Acts 13:36; Acts 23:8 (here WH text omits; Tr brackets μέν); 1 Corinthians 1:12, 23; Philippians 3:1; Hebrews 7:8; ἀπό μέν ... ἐπί δέ, 2 Timothy 4:4; ὁ μέν οὖν (German er nun (he, then)) ... οἱ δέ, Acts 28:5f; ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, and one ... and another, 1 Corinthians 11:21; οἱ μέν ... ὁ δέ (he, on the contrary), Hebrews 7:20f, 23f; ἐκεῖνοι μέν οὖν ... ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Corinthians 9:25; εἰ μέν οὖν ... εἰ δέ, Acts 18:14f (R G); (L T Tr WH); and this happens chiefly when what has already been included in the words immediately preceding is separated into parts, so that the adversative particle contrasts that which the writer especially desires to contrast: ἑκάστῳ ... τοῖς μέν ζητοῦσιν ... τοῖς δέ ἐξ ἐριθείας etc. Romans 2:6-8; πᾶς ... ἐκεῖνοι μέν ... ἡμεῖς δέ etc. 1 Corinthians 9:25; add, Matthew 25:14f, 33; Romans 5:16; Romans 11:22.
3. μέν ... δέ serve only to distribute a sentence into clauses: both ... and; not only ... but also; as well ... as: John 16:9-11; Romans 8:17; Jude 1:8; πρῶτον μέν ... ἔπειτα δέ, Hebrews 7:2; ὁ μέν ... ὁ δέ ... ὁ δέ, some ... some ... some, Matthew 13:8; (ἕκαστος ... ὁ μέν ... ὁ δέ, each ... one ... another, 1 Corinthians 7:7 L T Tr WH); ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, one ... another, Matthew 21:35; Acts 17:32; 1 Corinthians 7:7 (R G); οἱ μέν ... ἄλλοι (L οἱ) δέ ... ἕτεροι δέ, Matthew 16:14; ᾧ μέν γάρ ... ἄλλῳ δέ ... ἑτέρῳ δέ (here T Tr WH omit; L brackets δέ), 1 Corinthians 12:8-10; ἅ μέν ... followed by ἀλλά δέ (three times, Matthew 13:4f, 7f; ἄλλος μέν, ἄλλος δέ, 1 Corinthians 15:39; τοῦτο μέν ... τοῦτο δέ, on the one hand ... on the other; partly ... partly, Hebrews 10:33, also found in secular authors, cf. Winer's Grammar, 142 (135). μέν is followed by another particle: ἔπειτα, John 11:6; 1 Corinthians 12:28; James 3:17; καί νῦν, Acts 26:4, 6; τά νῦν, Acts 17:30; πολύ (R G πολλῷ) μᾶλλον, Hebrews 12:9.
II. Examples in which μέν is followed neither by δέ nor by any other adversative particle (μέν 'solitarium'); cf. Winers Grammar, 575f (534f); Buttmann, 365f (313f) These examples are of various kinds; either
1. the antithesis is evident from the context; as, Colossians 2:23 (`have indeed a show of wisdom', but are folly (cf. Lightfoot, in the place cited)); ἡ μέν ... σωτηρίαν, namely, but they themselves prevent their own salvation, Romans 10:1; τά μέν ... δυνάμεσιν, namely, but ye do not hold to my apostolic authority, 2 Corinthians 12:12: ἄνθρωποι μέν (L T Tr WH omit μέν) ... ὀμνύουσιν, namely, ὁ δέ Θεός καθ' ἑαυτοῦ ὀμνύει, Hebrews 6:16. Or,
2. the antithetic idea is brought out by a different turn of the sentence: Acts 19:4 (Rec.), where the expected second member, Ἰησοῦς δέ ἐστιν ὁ ἐρχόμενος, is wrapped up in τουτ' ἐστιν εἰς τόν Ἰησοῦν; Romans 11:13 ἐφ' ὅσον μέν κτλ., where the antithesis παραζήλω δέ κτλ. is contained in εἴπως παραζηλώσω; Romans 7:12 ὁ μέν νόμος κτλ., where the thought of the second member, 'but sin misuses the law,' is expressed in another forth in Romans 7:13ff by an anacoluthon, consisting of a change from the disjunctive to a conjunctive construction (cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 839), we find μέν ... τέ, Acts 27:21; μέν ... καί, 1 Thessalonians 2:18; in distributions or partitions, Mark 4:4-8 (here R G μέν ... δέ ... καί ... καί); Luke 8:5-8; or, finally, that member in which δέ would regularly follow immediately precedes (Herm. ad Vig., p. 839), Acts 28:22 (yet see Meyer at the passage; cf. Buttmann, § 149, 12 d.). Or
3. the writer, in using μέν, perhaps had in mind a second member to be introduced by δέ, but was drawn away from his intention by explanatory additions relating to the first member: thus Acts 3:13 (ὅν ὑμεῖς μέν — Rec. omits this μέν — etc., where ὁ Θεός δέ ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, cf. Acts 3:15, should have followed); especially (as occasionally in classical Greek also) after πρῶτον μέν: Romans 1:8; Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 11:18; τόν μέν πρῶτον λόγον κτλ., where the antithesis τόν δέ δεύτερον λόγον κτλ. ought to have followed, Acts 1:1.
4. μέν οὖν (in Luke 11:28 T Tr WH μενοῦν), Latinquidem igitur, (English so then, now therefore, verily, etc.) (where μέν is confirmatory of the matter in hand, and οὖν marks an inference or transition, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 662f; (Herm. Vig., pp. 540f, 842; Buttmann, § 149, 16)): Acts 1:18; Acts 5:41; Acts 13:4; Acts 17:30; Acts 23:22; Acts 26:9; 1 Corinthians 6:4, 7 (here T omits Tr brackets οὖν); ἀλλά μέν οὖν, Philippians 3:8 G L Tr; εἰ μέν οὖν, Hebrews 7:11.
5. μέν solitarium has a concessive and restrictive force, indeed, verily (German freilich) (cf. Klotz, Devar. ii. 2, p. 522; Hartung, Partikeln, ii. 404): εἰ μέν, 2 Corinthians 11:4; μέν οὖν now then, (German nun freilich), Hebrews 9:1 (cf. Buttmann, as above. On the use of μέν οὖν in the classics cf. Cope's note on Aristotle, rhet. 2, 9, 11.)
6. μενουγγε, which see in its place.
III. As respects the position of the particle: it never stands at the beginning of a sentence, but yet as near the beginning as possible; generally in the second or third place, by preference between the article and noun (examples in which it occupies the fourth place are Acts 3:21; 2 Corinthians 10:1; Colossians 2:23; Acts 14:12 Rec.; the fifth place, Ephesians 4:11; Romans 16:19 R WH brackets; 1 Corinthians 2:15 R G; (John 16:22, see below)); moreover, in the midst of a clause also it attaches itself to a word the force of which is to be strengthened, as καί ὑμεῖς οὖν λύπην μέν νῦν ἔχετε (but L T Tr WH ... οὖν νῦν μέν λύπην), John 16:22; cf. Winers Grammar, § 61, 6. The word is not found in the Rev. or in the Epistles of John.
STRONGS NT 3303: μενοῦνμενοῦν, equivalent to μέν οὖν, see μέν, II. 4f.