, with makk. אֶתֿ
, with suffix אֹתִי
, אֹתְכָה Numbers 22:33
, אֹתָ֑כָה Exodus 29:35
, feminine אֹתָךְ
etc.; 2 plural אֶתְכֶם
, once אוֺתְכֶם Joshua 23:15
; 3masculine plural regularly אֹתָם
, rarely אֶתְהֶם Genesis 32:1
; Exodus 18:20
; Numbers 21:3
; Ezekiel 34:12
; 1 Chronicles 6:50
, once אוֺתְהֶם Ezekiel 23:45
; 3feminine plural, on the contrary, regularly אֶתְהֶן
(13 t.), once אֹתָן Ezekiel 16:54
(also אוֺתְהֶן Ezekiel 23:47
, אֹתָ֖נָה Exodus 35:26
, אוֺתָ֖נָה Ezekiel 34:21
); forms with cholem
also often written plene:
mark of the accusative, prefixed as a rule only to nouns that are definite (Moabite id., Phoenician אית i.e. אִיַּת (Schrödp. 213 f.); Aramaic יָת frequently in ᵑ7; Syriac very rare as mark of accusative (for which is preferred), but used often in the sense of substance οὐσία, also in that of self, e.g. per se, reapse, sibi ipsi, PS1640f., Samaritan ; Arabic , only used with suffix, when it is desired to emphasize the pronoun, e.g. Qor 1:4 WAG i. § 189. [Ethiopic uses k£y¹ similarly, Di§ 150 a; but it is dubious if this is etymologically akin.] The primitive form will have been 'iwyath, originally a substantive with following Genitive, Olp. 432; whether ultimately a parallel development with אוֺת sign from √ אוה is uncertain: Ol WAG i. § 188 LagM i. 226 affirm, NöZMG 1886, 738 doubts. In Hebrew the ground-form is אוֺת; the forms with ¢, e being abbreviated. In post Biblical Hebrew, used in combination with another preposition: thus בְּאוֺתוֺ הַיּוֺם = Bibl. בַּיּוֺם הַהוּא, בְּאוֺתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה; or as a nomin., e.g. אוֺתוֺ הָאִישׁ = Bibl. הָאִישׁ הַהוּא).
1 As mark of the accusative prefixed to substantives defined either by the article (or כֹּל), or by a Genitive or pronominal affix, or in virtue of being proper names:
a. with transitive verbs, Genesis 1:1,16,29,30; Genesis 2:11; Genesis 4:1,2; Genesis 9:3 (אֶתֿכֹּל׃) etc. Similarly אֶתמִֿי whom (in particular), Joshua 24:15; 1 Samuel 12:3; 1 Samuel 28:11; Isaiah 6:8 and elsewhere (but never אֶתמָֿה); also with זֶה Genesis 29:33; Genesis 44:29; 1 Samuel 21:16; 1 Kings 22:27 +, זֹאת Genesis 29:27; 2 Samuel 13:27 +, אֵלֶּה Genesis 46:18; Leviticus 11:18; Isaiah 49:21 +. So pretty uniformly in prose; but in poetry את is commonly dispensed with. By the use of את with the pronominal affix, a pronoun can at once, if required, be placed in a position of emphasis; let the order of words from this point of view be carefully noticed in the following passages: Genesis 7:1; Genesis 24:14; Genesis 37:4; Leviticus 10:17; Leviticus 11:33; Numbers 22:32 thee I had slain, and her I had kept alive, Deuteronomy 4:14; Deuteronomy 6:13,23; Deuteronomy 13:5; Judges 14:3 אוֺתָהּ קַח לִי take for me her, 1 Samuel 14:35; 1 Samuel 15:1; 1 Samuel 18:17; 1 Samuel 21:10 אִםאֹֿתָהּ תִּקַּחלְֿךָ קָ֔ח if thou wilt take that, take it, 1 Kings 1:35; 1 Kings 14:9; Isaiah 43:22; Isaiah 57:11; Jeremiah 9:2. So הַאוֺתִי Jeremiah 5:22; Jeremiah 7:19. It also sometimes enables the reflexive sense to be expressed (elsewhere נַפְשָׁם) Jeremiah 7:19; Ezekiel 34:2. Rarely with a substantive which is undefined (Ew§ 277 d 2 Ges§ 117, 1, R. 2), as Exodus 21:28; Numbers 21:9; Leviticus 20:14; 1 Samuel 24:6 (but see Dr) 2 Samuel 4:11; 2 Samuel 18:18; 2 Samuel 23:21; or which, though definite, is without the article, Genesis 21:30; 2 Samuel 15:16; Leviticus 26:5; 1 Samuel 9:3 (so Numbers 16:15) Isaiah 33:19; Isaiah 41:7; Ezekiel 43:10 (for further examples see Ew 1.c.)
b. with a passive verb (Ges§ 121. 1 Ew§ 295 b) conceived as expressing neutrally the action in question, and construed accordingly with an accusative of that which is its real object: examples occur with tolerable frequency from Genesis 4:18 (J) וַיִּוָּלֵד לַחֲנוֺךְ אֶתעֿירָד, Genesis 17:5 (P), לֹא יִקָּרֵא עוֺד אֶתשִֿׁמְךָ אַברָם there shall not be called (=one shall not call) thy name Abram, Genesis 21:5 (E), Genesis 27:42; 2 Samuel 21:11; 1 Kings 18:13; Hosea 10:6 etc., to Jeremiah 35:18; Jeremiah 38:4; Jeremiah 50:20; Ezekiel 16:4,5; Esther 2:13 (compare DrJPh xi. 227 f.): also with passive verbs of filling (Ew§ 281 b), as Exodus 1:7 +.
c. with neuter verbs or expressions, especially such as involve the idea of regarding, or treating, appy. by a construction κατὰ σύνεσιν (rare), Joshua 22:17; 2 Samuel 11:25; Nehemiah 9:32 (compare 1 Samuel 20:13 Dr). Once after אֵין, Haggai 2:17; אֵין אֶתְכֶם אֵלַיָֽ.
d. poet. (si vera lectio), after an abstract noun used with a verbal force, Habakkuk 3:13 (Amos 4:11; Isaiah 13:19; Jeremiah 50:40 מַהְמֵּכָה exerts a verbal force, like the Arabic nom. verbi [see WAG i. § 196, 43]; and Numbers 10:2; Ezekiel 17:9 לְמַסַּע, לְמַשְׂאוֺת are Aramaizing infinitives: compare Ew§ 239 a).
2 את marks an accusative in other relations than that of direct object to a verb: a. with verbs of motion (very rare) Numbers 13:17; Deuteronomy 1:19; Deuteronomy 2:7 (to 'walk the wilderness'); denoting the goal Judges 19:18; Ezekiel 21:25 (Ew§ 281 d, n., 282 a 1). b. denoting time (duration), also very rare: Exodus 13:7; Leviticus 25:22; Deuteronomy 9:25. c. expressing the accus. of limitation (rare): Genesis 17:11,14; 1 Kings 15:23.
3 Chiefly in an inferior or later style, אֵת (or וְאֵת) is used irregularly, partly (α), as it would seem, to give greater definiteness (so especially וְאֵת) at the mention of a new subject (when it may sometimes be rendered as regards), or through the influence of a neighbouring verb (a construct κατὰ σύνεσιν), or by an anacoluthon, partly (β) as resuming loosely some other preposition Thus (α) Exodus 1:14; Numbers 3:26,46; Numbers 5:10 (with הָיָה: so Ezekiel 35:10) Numbers 18:21b Deuteronomy 11:2 (anacoluthon), Deuteronomy 14:13; Joshua 17:11; Judges 20:44,46 (contr. Judges 20:25; Judges 20:35) 1 Samuel 17:34 (see Dr) 1 Samuel 26:16; 2 Samuel 21:22; 2 Kings 6:5; Isaiah 53:8 (probably), Isaiah 57:12; Jeremiah 23:33 (but read rather with ᵐ5 ᵑ9 אַתֶּם הַמַּשָּׂא) Jeremiah 27:8; Jeremiah 36:22; Jeremiah 38:16 Kt, Jeremiah 45:4 b Ezekiel 16:22; Ezekiel 17:21; Ezekiel 20:16; Ezekiel 29:4; b Ezekiel 43:7 (ᵐ5 Co prefix הֲרָאִיתָ) Ezekiel 44:3; Zechariah 8:17; Ecclesiastes 4:3; Daniel 9:13; Nehemiah 9:19,34; 1 Chronicles 2:9; 2Chronicles 31:17. In 1 Samuel 30:23; Haggai 2:5 probably some such word as remember is to be understood. (β) Jeremiah 38:9; Ezekiel 14:22; b Ezekiel 37:19 b Zechariah 12:10; סָבִיב אֵת 1 Kings 6:5; Ezekiel 43:17 strangely (in 1Kings ᵐ5 omits the clause: so StaZAW 1883, 135). — In 1 Kings 11:1 וְ is merely and also, and especially (see וְ); 1 Kings 11:25 is corrupt (read with ᵐ5 זֹאת הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הֲדָד); Ezekiel 47:17,18,19 read similarly for ואת, זֹאת: see Ezekiel 47:20. — For some particulars as to the use of את, see A. M. WilsonHebraica. vi. 139 ff. 212 ff. (who, however, confuses it sometimes with II. אֵת). For denoting the pronominal object of a verb, את with suffix preponderates relatively much above the verbal affix in P, as compared with J E Deuteronomy Judges Samuel Kings (see GieZAW 1881, 258 f.), — partly, probably, on account of the greater distinctness and precision which P loves.
יָת mark of accusative (= Biblical Hebrew I. אֵת; Palmyrene ית; ZinjirliHad. 28 with suffix ותה; Nabataean, Palmyrene with suffix יתה (Lzb263 Cooke170; compare RÉS468); ᵑ7 Samaritan יָת; Syriac (rare)); — Daniel 3:12 דִּי מַנִּיתָ יָָֽתְהוֺן whom thou hast appointed.