Bible ConcordanceView (86 Occurrences)
Matthew 11:7 And as they are going, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, 'What went ye out to the wilderness to view? -- a reed shaken by the wind? (YLT)
Matthew 19:8 He says to them, Moses, in view of your hardheartedness, allowed you to put away your wives; but from the beginning it was not thus. (DBY)
Matthew 22:11 And the king having come in to view those reclining, saw there a man not clothed with clothing of the marriage-feast, (YLT)
Matthew 23:5 And everything they do they do with a view to being observed by men; for they widen their phylacteries and make the tassels large, (WEY)
Mark 2:12 He arose, and immediately took up the mat, and went out in front of them all; so that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, "We never saw anything like this!" (See NIV)
Mark 4:22 Why, there is nothing hidden except with a view to its being ultimately disclosed, nor has anything been made a secret but that it may at last come to light. (WEY)
Mark 10:5 And Jesus answering said to them, In view of your hard-heartedness he wrote this commandment for you; (DBY)
Mark 13:22 For there will rise up false Christs and false prophets, displaying signs and prodigies with a view to lead astray--if indeed that were possible--even God's own People. (WEY)
Luke 8:17 For nothing is put out of view which will not be made clear, and nothing is secret of which the knowledge will not come to light. (BBE)
Luke 19:3 Made an attempt to get a view of Jesus, and was not able to do so, because of the people, for he was a small man. (BBE)
Luke 19:41 When He came into full view of the city, He wept aloud over it, and exclaimed, (WEY)
Luke 24:31 And then their eyes were open, and they had knowledge of him, but he went from their view. (BBE)
Luke 24:50 And He brought them out to within view of Bethany, and then lifted up His hands and blessed them. (WEY)
Acts 1:9 And when he had said these things, while they were looking, he was taken up, and went from their view into a cloud. (BBE)
Acts 2:38 "Repent," replied Peter, "and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, with a view to the remission of your sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. (WEY)
Acts 7:31 And Moses, seeing it, was full of wonder, and when he came up to have a nearer view of it, the voice of the Lord came to him, saying, (BBE)
Acts 10:11 The sky had opened to his view, and what seemed to be an enormous sail was descending, being let down to the earth by ropes at the four corners. (WEY)
Acts 21:3 And when we had come in view of Cyprus, going past it on our left, we went on to Syria, and came to land at Tyre: for there the goods which were in the ship had to be taken out. (BBE)
Acts 24:16 Herein I also practice always having a conscience void of offense toward God and men. (See NAS)
Romans 3:2 The privilege is great from every point of view. First of all, because the Jews were entrusted with God's truth. (WEY)
Romans 3:26 with a view to demonstrating, at the present time, His righteousness, that He may be shown to be righteous Himself, and the giver of righteousness to those who believe in Jesus. (WEY)
Romans 8:24 It is *in hope* that we have been saved. But an object of hope is such no longer when it is present to view; for when a man has a thing before his eyes, how can he be said to hope for it? (WEY)
Romans 12:1 Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. (See NIV)
Romans 15:2 Let each one of us please his neighbour with a view to what is good, to edification. (DBY)
1 Corinthians 4:1 As for us Apostles, let any one take this view of us--we are Christ's officers, and stewards of God's secret truths. (WEY)
1 Corinthians 4:9 For it seems to me that God has put us the Apostles last of all, as men whose fate is death: for we are put on view to the world, and to angels, and to men. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 7:26 I think that it is good therefore, because of the distress that is on us, that it is good for a man to be as he is. (See NAS RSV)
1 Corinthians 9:8 Do I speak these things according to the ways of men? Or doesn't the law also say the same thing? (See NIV)
1 Corinthians 14:26 What then, brethren? Whenever you assemble, there is not one of you who is not ready either with a song of praise, a sermon, a revelation, a 'tongue,' or an interpretation. Let everything be done with a view to the building up of faith and character. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 2:9 For in writing to you I have also this object in view--to discover by experience whether you are prepared to be obedient in every respect. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 5:5 And He who formed us with this very end in view is God, who has given us His Spirit as a pledge and foretaste of that bliss. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 5:16 Therefore we know no one after the flesh from now on. Even though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now we know him so no more. (See RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 12:19 You are imagining, all this time, that we are making our defense at your bar. In reality it is as in God's presence and in communion with Christ that we speak; but, dear friends, it is all with a view to your progress in goodness. (WEY)
Galatians 2:8 for He who had been at work within Peter with a view to his Apostleship to the Jews had also been at work within me with a view to my Apostleship to the Gentiles-- (WEY)
Galatians 5:10 For my part I have strong confidence in you in the Lord that you will adopt my view of the matter. But the man--be he who he may--who is troubling you, will have to bear the full weight of the judgement to be pronounced on him. (WEY NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 1:10 to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; (See NAS)
Ephesians 1:14 who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. (See NAS)
Ephesians 4:12 for the perfecting of the saints; with a view to the work of the ministry, with a view to the edifying of the body of Christ; (DBY)
Ephesians 4:14 in order that we may be no longer babes, tossed and carried about by every wind of that teaching which is in the sleight of men, in unprincipled cunning with a view to systematized error; (DBY)
Ephesians 6:18 with all prayer and requests, praying at all times in the Spirit, and being watchful to this end in all perseverance and requests for all the saints: (See NAS)
Philippians 1:5 for your partnership in furtherance of the Good News from the first day until now; (See NAS)
Philippians 3:15 Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, think this way. If in anything you think otherwise, God will also reveal that to you. (See NIV)
Colossians 2:3 In Him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are stored up, hidden from view. (WEY)
2 Thessalonians 1:5 For these are a plain token of God's righteous judgement, which has in view your being deemed worthy of admission to God's Kingdom, for the sake of which, indeed, you are sufferers. (WEY)
2 Thessalonians 1:11 It is with this view also that we continually pray to our God for you, asking that He will count you worthy of His call, and by His mighty power fully gratify your every desire for what is truly good and make your work of faith complete; (WEY)
1 Timothy 1:16 But mercy was shown me in order that in me as the foremost of sinners Christ Jesus might display the fulness of His long-suffering patience as an example to encourage those who would afterwards be resting their faith on Him with a view to the Life of the Ages. (WEY)
2 Timothy 4:1 I command you therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at his appearing and his Kingdom: (See NIV)
Hebrews 6:11 But we long for each of you to continue to manifest the same earnestness, with a view to your enjoying fulness of hope to the very End; (WEY)
Hebrews 10:24 And let us bestow thought on one another with a view to arousing one another to brotherly love and right conduct; (WEY)
Hebrews 12:2 looking stedfastly on Jesus the leader and completer of faith: who, in view of the joy lying before him, endured the cross, having despised the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. (DBY)
James 1:24 for he did view himself, and hath gone away, and immediately he did forget of what kind he was; (YLT)
James 1:25 But he that fixes his view on the perfect law, that of liberty, and abides in it, being not a forgetful hearer but a doer of the work, he shall be blessed in his doing. (DBY)
1 Peter 1:2 chosen in accordance with the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, with a view to their obedience and to their being sprinkled with the blood of Jesus Christ. May more and more grace and peace be granted to you. (WEY)
1 Peter 4:6 For it is with this end in view that the Good News was proclaimed even to some who were dead, that they may be judged, as all mankind will be judged, in the body, but may be living a godly life in the spirit. (WEY)
2 Peter 3:5 But in taking this view they put out of their minds the memory that in the old days there was a heaven, and an earth lifted out of the water and circled by water, by the word of God; (BBE)
1 John 3:17 and whoever may have the goods of the world, and may view his brother having need, and may shut up his bowels from him -- how doth the love of God remain in him? (YLT)
Revelation 13:13 He performs great signs, even making fire come down out of the sky to the earth in the sight of people. (See NIV)
Numbers 13:21 So they went up and got a view of the land, from the waste land of Zin to Rehob, on the way to Hamath. (BBE)
Numbers 23:9 For from the top of the rocks I see him. From the hills I see him. Behold, it is a people that dwells alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations. (See NIV)
Numbers 33:3 They traveled from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the next day after the Passover the children of Israel went out with a high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians, (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 9:19 For I was full of fear because of the wrath of the Lord which was burning against you, with your destruction in view. But again the Lord's ear was open to my prayer. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 32:49 It was so, that after they had carried it about, the hand of Yahweh was against the city with a very great confusion: and he struck the men of the city, both small and great; and tumors broke out on them. (See RSV NIV)
Joshua 2:1 Joshua the son of Nun secretly sent two men out of Shittim as spies, saying, "Go, view the land, including Jericho." They went and came into the house of a prostitute whose name was Rahab, and slept there. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV)
Joshua 7:2 And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is beside Bethaven, on the east of Bethel, and spake unto them, saying, Go up and view the country. And the men went up and viewed Ai. (KJV WBS)
Joshua 18:4 Appoint for yourselves three men from each tribe. I will send them, and they shall arise, walk through the land, and describe it according to their inheritance; and they shall come to me. (See RSV)
1 Samuel 10:22 So they put another question to the Lord, Is the man present here? And the answer of the Lord was, He is keeping himself from view among the goods. (BBE)
1 Samuel 16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, Do not take note of his face or how tall he is, because I will not have him: for the Lord's view is not man's; man takes note of the outer form, but the Lord sees the heart. (BBE)
1 Samuel 26:5 And David got up and came to the place where Saul's tents were: and David had a view of the place where Saul was sleeping with Abner, the son of Ner, the captain of his army: and Saul was sleeping inside the ring of carts, and the tents of the people were all round him. (BBE)
2 Kings 2:7 And fifty men of the sons of the prophets went, and stood to view afar off: and they two stood by Jordan. (KJV WBS)
2 Kings 2:15 And when the sons of the prophets which were to view at Jericho saw him, they said, The spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha. And they came to meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before him. (KJV WBS)
2 Chronicles 20:23 And the children of Ammon and Moab made an attack on the people of Mount Seir with a view to their complete destruction; and when they had put an end to the people of Seir, everyman's hand was turned against his neighbour for his destruction. (BBE)
Esther 9:24 Because Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the hater of all the Jews, had made designs for their destruction, attempting to get a decision by Pur (that is, chance) with a view to putting an end to them and cutting them off; (BBE)
Job 30:13 They have made waste my roads, with a view to my destruction; his bowmen come round about me; (BBE)
Job 33:21 His flesh is consumed away from view, and his bones that were not seen stick out; (DBY)
Psalms 48:13 Mark well her bulwarks. Consider her palaces, that you may tell it to the next generation. (See NIV)
Psalms 68:24 They have seen your processions, God, even the processions of my God, my King, into the sanctuary. (See NIV)
Proverbs 1:17 Truly, to no purpose is the net stretched out before the eyes of the bird: (See NIV)
Proverbs 5:21 For a man's ways are before the eyes of the Lord, and he puts all his goings in the scales. (See NIV)
Proverbs 17:24 Wisdom is before the face of him who has sense; but the eyes of the foolish are on the ends of the earth. (See NIV)
Isaiah 3:9 Their respect for a man's position is a witness against them; and their sin is open to the view of all; like that of Sodom, it is not covered. A curse on their soul! for the measure of their sin is full. (BBE)
Isaiah 33:17 Your eyes will see the king in his glory: they will be looking on a far-stretching land. (See NIV)
Isaiah 64:11 In view of all this, will you still do nothing, O Lord? will you keep quiet, and go on increasing our punishment? (BBE)
Jeremiah 15:15 Yahweh, you know; remember me, and visit me, and avenge me of my persecutors; don't take me away in your longsuffering: know that for your sake I have suffered reproach. (See NAS)
Lamentations 3:39 Why does a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins? (See NAS)
Ezekiel 14:4 Therefore speak to them, and tell them, Thus says the Lord Yahweh: Every man of the house of Israel who takes his idols into his heart, and puts the stumbling block of his iniquity before his face, and comes to the prophet; I Yahweh will answer him therein according to the multitude of his idols; (See NAS)
Hosea 5:6 They will go, with their flocks and their herds, in search of the Lord, but they will not see him; he has taken himself out of their view. (BBE)
ThesaurusView (86 Occurrences)...
inspection. 2. (n.) Mental survey; intellectual perception or examination;
as, a just view
of the arguments or facts in a case. 3 .../v/view.htm - 81k
Regard (230 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (vt) To keep in view; to behold; to look at; to view;
to gaze upon. ... 10. (n.) A look; aspect directed to another; view; gaze. 11. ...
/r/regard.htm - 36k
Survey (6 Occurrences)
... 1. (vt) To inspect, or take a view of; to view with attention, as from a high place;
to overlook; as, to stand on a hill, and survey the surrounding country. ...
/s/survey.htm - 9k
... in each case, to the whole progress of the discourses themselves, and to the parabolic
sayings with which they conclude, makes this view improbable, and points ...
/b/beatitudes.htm - 16k
Levitical (19 Occurrences)
... LEVITICAL CITIES. le-vit'-i-kal I. LEGAL PROVISIONS 1. Numbers 2. Deuteronomy II.
WELLHAUSEN'S VIEW III. ALTERNATIVE ... II. Wellhausen's View. Joshua ...
/l/levitical.htm - 20k
Field (390 Occurrences)
... 5. (n.) Any blank space or ground on which figures are drawn or projected. 6.
(n.) The space covered by an optical instrument at one view. ...
/f/field.htm - 44k
... But these names in themselves "do not prove a totem stage in the development of
Israel" (HPN, 114); philologically, the view has a shaky foundation (see, eg ...
/t/totemism.htm - 11k
Sight (522 Occurrences)
... 1. (n.) The act of seeing; perception of objects by the eye; view; as, to gain sight
of land. ... 4. (n.) A spectacle; a view; a show; something worth seeing. ...
/s/sight.htm - 37k
Show (1340 Occurrences)
... 1. (vt) To exhibit or present to view; to place in sight; to display; -- the thing
exhibited being the object, and often with an indirect object denoting the ...
/s/show.htm - 12k
Eternity (23 Occurrences)
... equivalent, aion): Contents 1. Contrast with Time 2. In the Old Testament 3. In
the New Testament 4. The Eternal "Now" 5. Defect of This View 6. Philosophical ...
/e/eternity.htm - 24k
Greek2684. kataskopeo -- to view closely, spy out ...
closely, spy out. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: kataskopeo Phonetic
Spelling: (kat-as-kop-eh'-o) Short Definition: I spy out, plot against ... /greek/2684.htm - 7k
561. apenanti -- over against, before
... against, before. Part of Speech: Adverb Transliteration: apenanti Phonetic Spelling:
(ap-en'-an-tee) Short Definition: over against, opposite, in view of, in ...
/greek/561.htm - 6k
328. anazonnumi -- to gird up
... anazonnumi Phonetic Spelling: (an-ad-zone'-noo-mee) Short Definition: I gird up,
brace up Definition: I gird up, brace up (with a view to active exertion); a ...
/greek/328.htm - 7k
3499. nekroo -- to put to death
... Cognate: 3499 (from 3498 , corpse-like, lifeless") -- to view as a corpse, ie without
life; (but not "make") , ; to mortify, deprive of life or energizing power ...
/greek/3499.htm - 7k
249. alogos -- without reason
... logic.". 249 ("unreasonable") refers to behavior (thinking) from God's point
of view, ie what is completely against . 249 () means ...
/greek/249.htm - 7k
5342. phero -- to bear, carry, bring forth
... The following is a fuller expanded rendering of the Greek text, " [in view of the
meaning of salvation that extends to glorification, 1 Pet 1:9] (5342 ).". ...
/greek/5342.htm - 10k
1491. eidos -- appearance, fashion, shape, sight.
... appearance, fashion, shape, sight. From eido; a view, ie Form (literally or
figuratively) -- appearance, fashion, shape, sight. see GREEK eido. ...
/greek/1491.htm - 7k
4153. pneumatikos -- spiritually
... pneumatikos Phonetic Spelling: (pnyoo-mat-ik-oce') Short Definition: spiritually
Definition: spiritually, in a spiritual way; from a spiritual point of view. ...
/greek/4153.htm - 6k
5346. phemi -- to declare, say
... 5346 (from , "shine") -- properly, by statement (point of view) another; to
speak , ie making effective which (literally, "produce an "). ...
/greek/5346.htm - 7k
2850. kolakeia -- flattery
... of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: kolakeia Phonetic Spelling:
(kol-ak-i'-ah) Short Definition: flattery Definition: flattery, with a view to ...
/greek/2850.htm - 6k
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaBAPTISM (NON-IMMERSIONIST VIEW)
I. THE SCRIPTURAL NAMES FOR THE RITE
II. PRE-CHRISTIAN BAPTISM
1. Baptism of Proselytes
2. Baptism of John
3. Baptism in the Pagan Mysteries
III. CHRISTIAN BAPTISM
1. The administration of the Rite
2. The Mode of Using the Water
3. Who May Perform Baptism
4. Who May Receive Baptism
(1) Baptism of Infants
(2) Baptism for the Dead
IV. THE FORMULA OF BAPTISM
V. THE DOCTRINE OF BAPTISM
The Doctrine of Infant Baptism
Baptism (baptisma, baptismos, baptizein) has been from the earliest times the initiatory rite signifying the recognition of entrance into or of presence within the Christian church. We find the earliest mention of the ceremony in the Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 3:27), written about 20 years after the death of Jesus. There and in 1 Corinthians (1 Corinthians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 12:13) Paul takes for granted that everyone who becomes a Christian (himself included) must be baptized. The rite seems also to have existed among the discipleship of Jesus before His death. We are told (John 4:1, 2) that, although Jesus Himself did not baptize, His disciples did, and that their baptisms were more numerous than those of John.
I. The Scriptural Names for the Rite.
The words commonly used in the New Testament to denote the rite are the verb baptizo, and the nouns baptisma and baptismos; but none are employed in this sense alone. The verb is used to denote the ceremonial purification of the Jews before eating, by pouring water on the hands (Luke 11:38 Mark 7:4); to signify the sufferings of Christ (Mark 10:38, 39 Luke 12:50); and to indicate the sacrament of baptism. It is the intensive form of baptein, "to dip," and takes a wider meaning. The passages Luke 11:38 and Mark 7:4 show conclusively that the word does not invariably signify to immerse the whole body. Some have held that baptismos invariably means ceremonial purification, and that baptisma is reserved for the Christian rite; but the distinction can hardly be maintained. The former certainly means ceremonial purification in Mark 7:4, and in Mark 7:8 (the King James Version); but it probably means the rite of baptism in Hebrews 6:2. Exegetes find other terms applied to Christian baptism. It is called `the Water' in Acts 10:47: "Can any man forbid `the Water,' that these should not be baptized?"; the layer of the water in Ephesians 5:26 the Revised Version, margin (where baptism is compared to the bridal bath taken by the bride before she was handed over to the bridegroom); and perhaps the laver of regeneration in Titus 3:5 the Revised Version, margin (compare 1 Corinthians 6:11), and illumination in Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32.
II. Pre-Christian Baptism.
1. Baptism of Proselytes:
Converts in the early centuries, whether Jews or Gentiles, could not have found this initiatory rite, in which they expressed their new-born faith, utterly unfamiliar. Water is the element naturally used for cleansing the body and its symbolical use entered into almost every cult; and into none more completely than the Jewish, whose ceremonial washings were proverbial. Besides those the Jew had what would seem to the convert a counterpart of the Christian rite in the baptism of proselytes by which Gentiles entered the circle of Judaism. For the Jews required three things of strangers who declared themselves to be converts to the Law of Moses: circumcision, baptism, and to offer sacrifice if they were men: the two latter if they were women. It is somewhat singular that no baptism of proselytes is forthcoming until about the beginning of the 3rd century; and yet no competent scholar doubts its existence. Schurer is full of contempt for those who insist on the argument from silence. Its presence enables us to see both how Jews accepted readily the baptism of John and to understand the point of objectors who questioned his right to insist that all Jews had to be purified ere they could be ready for the Messianic kingdom, although he was neither the Messiah nor a special prophet (John 1:19-23).
2. Baptism of John:
The baptism of John stood midway between the Jewish baptism of proselytes and Christian baptism. It differed from the former because it was more than a symbol of ceremonial purification; it was a baptism of repentance, a confession of sin, and of the need of moral cleansing, and was a symbol of forgiveness and of moral purity. All men, Jews who were ceremonially pure and Gentiles who were not, had to submit to this baptism of repentance and pardon. It differed from the latter because it only symbolized preparation to receive the salvation, the kingdom of God which John heralded, and did not imply entrance into that kingdom itself. Those who had received it, as well as those who had not, had to enter the Christian community by the door of Christian baptism (Acts 19:3-6). The Jewish custom of baptizing, whether displayed in their frequent ceremonial washings, in the baptism of proselytes or in the baptism of John, made Christian baptism a familiar and even expected rite to Jewish converts in the 1st century.
3. Baptism in the Pagan Mysteries:
Baptism, as an initiatory rite, was no less familiar to Gentileconverts who had no acquaintance with the Jewish religion. The ceremonial washings of the priests of pagan in the religions have been often adduced as something which might familiarize Gentileconverts with the rite which introduced them into the Christian community, but they were not initiations. A more exact parallel is easily found. It is often forgotten that in the earlier centuries when Christianity was slowly making its way in the pagan world pagan piety had deserted the official religions and taken refuge within the Mysteries, and that these Mysteries represented the popular pagan religions of the times. They were all private cults into which men and women were received one by one, and that by rites of initiation which each had to pass through personally. When admitted the converts became members of coteries, large or small, of like-minded persons, who had become initiated because their souls craved something which they believed they would receive in and through the rites of the cult. These initiations were secret, jealously guarded from the knowledge of all outsiders; still enough is known about them for us to be sure that among them baptism took an important place (Apuleius Metamorphoses xi). The rite was therefore as familiar to pagan as to Jewish converts, and it was no unexpected requirement for the convert to know that baptism was the doorway into the church of Christ. These heathen baptisms, like the baptism of proselytes, were for the most part simply ceremonial purifications; for while it is true that both in the cult of the Mysteries and beyond it a mode of purifying after great crimes was baptizing in flowing water (Eurip. Iph. in Tauri 167) or in the sea, yet it would appear that only ceremonial purification was thought of. Nor were ceremonial rites involving the use of water confined to the paganism of the early centuries. Such a ceremony denoted the reception of the newly-born child into pagan Scandinavian households. The father decided whether the infant was to be reared or exposed to perish. If he resolved to preserve the babe, water was poured over it and a name was given to it.
III. Christian Baptism.
1. The Administration of the Rite:
In the administration of the rite of Christian baptism three things have to be looked at: the act of baptizing; those who are entitled to perform it; and the recipients or those entitled to receive it. A complete act of baptizing involves three things: what has been called the materia sacramenti; the method of its use; and the forma sacramenti, the baptismal formula or form of words accompanying the use of the water. The materia sacramenti is water and for this reason baptism is called the Water Sacrament. The oldest ecclesiastical manual of discipline which has descended to us, the Didache, says that the water to be preferred is "living," i.e. running water, water in a stream or river, or fresh flowing from a fountain; "But if thou hast not living water, baptize in other water; and if thou canst not in cold, then in warm" (c. 7). In those directions the prescriptions of the ceremonial for the Jewish baptism of proselytes are closely followed. The earlier canons of the church permit any kind of water, fresh or salt, provided only it be true and natural water (aqua vera et naturalis).
2. The Mode of Using the Water:
The use of the water is called ablutio. According to the rules of by far the largest portion of the Christian church the water may be used in any one of three ways: Immersion, where the recipient enters bodily into the water, and where, during the action, the head is plunged either once or three times beneath the surface; affusion, where water was poured upon the head of the recipient who stood either in water or on dry ground; and aspersion where water was sprinkled on the head or on the face. It has frequently been argued that the word baptizein invariably means "to dip" or immerse, and that therefore Christian baptism must have been performed originally by immersion only, and that the two other forms of affusion and aspersion or sprinkling are invalid-that there can be no real baptism unless the method of immersion be used. But the word which invariably means "to dip" is not baptizein but baptein. Baptizein has a wider signification; and its use to denote the Jewish ceremonial of pouring water on the hands (Luke 11:38 Mark 7:4), as has already been said, proves conclusively that it is impossible to conclude from the word itself that immersion is the only valid method of performing the rite. It may be admitted at once that immersion, where the whole body including the head is plunged into a pool of pure water, gives a more vivid picture of the cleansing of the soul from sin; and that complete surrounding with water suits better the metaphors of burial in Roman 6:4 and Colossians 2:12, and of being surrounded by cloud in 1 Corinthians 10:2.
On the other hand affusion is certainly a more vivid picture of the bestowal of the Holy Spirit which is equally symbolized in baptism. No definite information is given of the mode in which baptism was administered in apostolic times. Such phrases as "coming up out of the water," "went down into the water" (Mark 1:10 Acts 8:38) are as applicable to affusion as to immersion. The earliest account of the mode of baptizing occurs in the Didache (c. 7), where it is said: "Now concerning Baptism, thus baptize ye: having first uttered all these things, baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, in living water. But if thou hast not living water, baptize in other water; and if thou canst not in cold, then in warm. But if thou hast neither, pour water upon the head thrice in the name of Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost." This seems to say that to baptize by immersion was the practice recommended for general use, but that the mode of affusion was also valid and enjoined on occasions. What is here prescribed in the Didache seems to have been the practice usually followed in the early centuries of the Christian church. Immersion was in common use: but affusion was also widely practiced: and both were esteemed usual and valid forms of baptizing. When immersion was used then the head of the recipient was plunged thrice beneath the surface at the mention of each name of the Trinity; when the mode was by affusion the same reference to the Trinity was kept by pouring water thrice upon the head. The two usages which were recognized and prescribed by the beginning of the 2nd century may have been in use throughout the apostolic period although definite information is lacking. When we remember the various pools in Jerusalem, and their use for ceremonial washings it is not impossible to suppose that the 3,000 who were baptized on the day of Pentecost may have been immersed, but, when the furnishing and conditions of Palestinian houses and of oriental jails are taken into account, it is difficult to conceive that at the baptisms of Cornelius and of the jailer, the ceremony was performed otherwise than by affusion. It is a somewhat curious fact that if the evidence from written texts, whether ancient canons or writings of the earlier Fathers, be studied by themselves, the natural conclusion would seem to be that immersion was the almost universal form of administering the rite; but if the witness of the earliest pictorial representation be collected, then we must infer that affusion was the usual method and that immersion was exceptional; for the pictorial representations, almost without exception, display baptism performed by affusion, i.e. the recipient is seen standing in water while the minister pours water on the head. It may therefore be inferred that evidence for the almost universal practice of immersion, drawn from the fact that baptisms took place in river pools (it is more than probable that when we find the names of local saints given to pools in rivers, those places were their favorite places of administering the rite), or from the large size of almost all early medieval baptisteries, is by no means so conclusive as many have supposed, such places being equally applicable to affusion. It is also interesting to remember that when most of the Anabaptists of the 16th century insisted on adult baptism (re-baptism was their name for it) immersion was not the method practiced by them. During the great baptismal scene in the market-place of the city of Munster the ordinance was performed by the ministers pouring three cans of water on the heads of the recipients. They baptized by affusion and not by immersion. This was also the practice among the Mennonites or earliest Baptists. This double mode of administering the sacrament-by immersion or by affusion-prevailed in the churches of the first twelve centuries, and it was not until the 13th that the practice of aspersio or sprinkling was almost universally employed.
The third method of administering baptism, namely, by aspersio or sprinkling, has a different history from the other two. It was in the early centuries exclusively reserved for sick and infirm persons too weak to be submitted to immersion or affusion. There is evidence to show that those who received the rite in this form were somewhat despised; for the nicknames clinici and grabatorii were, unworthily Cyprian declares, bestowed on them by neighbors. The question was even raised in the middle of the 3rd century, whether baptism by aspersio was a valid baptism and Cyprian was asked for his opinion on the matter. His answer is contained in his lxxvth epistle (lxix Hartel's ed.). There he contends that the ordinance administered this way is perfectly valid, and quotes in support of his opinion various Old Testament texts which assert the purifying effects of water sprinkled (Ezekiel 36:25, 26 Numbers 8:5-7; Numbers 19:8, 9, 12, 13). It is not the amount of the water or the method of its application which can cleanse from sin: "Whence it appears that the sprinkling also of water prevails equally with the washing of salvation. and that where the faith of the giver and receiver is sound, all things hold and may be consummated and perfected by the majesty of God and by the truth of faith." His opinion prevailed. Aspersio was recognized as a valid, though exceptional, form of baptism. But it was long of commending itself to ministers and people, and did not attain to almost general use until the 13th century.
The idea that baptism is valid when practiced in the one method only of immersion can scarcely be looked on as anything else than a ritualistic idea.
3. Who May Perform Baptism:
The Scripture nowhere describes or limits the qualifications of those who are entitled to perform the rite of baptism. We find apostles, wandering preachers (Acts 8:38), a private member of a small and persecuted community (Acts 9:18) performing the rite. So in the sub-apostolic church we find the same liberty of practice. Clement of Alexandria tells us that the services of Christian women were necessary for the work of Christian missions, for they alone could have access to the gynaeceum and carry the message of the gospel there (Strom., III, 6). Such women missionaries did not hesitate to baptize. Whatever credit may be given to the Acts of Paul and Theckla, it is at least historical that Theckla did exist, that she was converted by Paul, that she worked as a missionary and that she baptized her converts. Speaking generally it may be said that as a sacrament has always been looked upon as the recognition of presence within the Christian church, it is an act of the church and not of the individual believer; and therefore no one is entitled to perform the act who is not in some way a representative of the Christian community-the representative character ought to be maintained somehow. As soon as the community had taken regular and organized form the act of baptism was suitably performed by those who, as office-bearers, naturally represented the community. It was recognized that the pastor or bishop (for these terms were synonymous until the 4th century at least) ought to preside at the administration of the sacrament; but in the early church the power of delegation was recognized and practiced, and elders and deacons presided at this and even at the Eucharist. What has been called lay-baptism is not forbidden in the New Testament and has the sanction of the early church. When superstitious views of baptism entered largely into the church and it was held that no unbaptized child could be saved, the practice arose of encouraging the baptism of all weakling infants by nurses. The Reformed church protested against this and was at pains to repudiate the superstitious thought of any mechanical efficacy in the rite by deprecating its exercise by any save approved and ordained ministers of the church. Still, while condemning lay-baptism as irregular, it may be questioned whether they would assert any administration of the rite to be invalid, provided only it had been performed with devout faith on the part of giver and receiver.
4. Who May Receive Baptism:
The recipients of Christian baptism are all those who make a presumably sincere profession of repentance of sin and of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour; together with the children of such believing parents. The requirements are set forth in the accounts given us of the performance of the rite in the New Testament, in which we see how the apostles obeyed the commands of their Master. Jesus had ordered them to "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28:19)-to "preach the gospel to the whole creation. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that disbelieveth shall be condemned" (Mark 16:15, 16). The apostle Peter said to the inquirers on the Day of Pentecost, "Repent ye, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ unto the remission of your sins; and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit"; and 3,000 were added to the church through the initiatory rite of baptism. The Samaritans, who believed on Jesus through the preaching of Philip, were admitted to the Christian community through baptism; though in this case one of the baptized, Simon Magus, after his reception, was found to be still in "the bond of iniquity" (Acts 8:12, 23). The jailer and all his, Lydia and her household, at Philippi, were baptized by Paul on his and her profession of faith on Jesus, the Saviour. There is no evidence in any of the accounts we have of apostolic baptisms that any prolonged course of instruction was thought to be necessary; nothing of classes for catechumens such as we find in the early church by the close of the 2nd century, or in modern missionary enterprise. We find no mention of baptismal creeds, declarative or interrogative, in the New Testament accounts of baptisms. The profession of faith in the Lord Jesus, the Saviour, made by the head of the family appears, so far as the New Testament records afford us information, to have been sufficient to secure the baptism of the "household"-a word which in these days included both servants and children.
(1) Baptism of Infants.
This brings us to the much-debated question whether infants are to be recognized as lawful recipients of Christian baptism. The New Testament Scriptures do not in so many words either forbid or command the baptism of children. The question is in this respect on all fours with the change of the holy day from the seventh to the first day of the week. No positive command authorizes the universal usage with regard to the Christian Sabbath day; that the change is authorized must be settled by a weighing of evidence. So it is with the case of infant baptism. It is neither commanded nor forbidden in so many words; and the question cannot be decided on such a basis. The strongest argument against the baptizing of infants lies in the thought that the conditions of the rite are repentance and faith; that these must be exercised by individuals, each one for himself and for herself; and that infants are incapable either of repentance or of faith of this kind. The argument seems weak in its second statement; it is more dogmatic than historical; and will be referred to later when the doctrine lying at the basis of the rite is examined. On the other hand a great deal of evidence supports the view that the baptism of infants, if not commanded, was at least permitted and practiced within the apostolic church. Paul connects baptism with circumcision and implies that under the gospel the former takes the place of the latter (Colossians 2:12); and as children were circumcised on the 8th day after birth, the inference follows naturally that children were also to be baptized. In the Old Testament, promises to parents included their children. In his sermon on the Day of Pentecost Peter declares to his hearers that the gospel promise is "to you and to your children" and connects this with the invitation to baptism (Acts 2:38, 39). It is also noteworthy that children shared in the Jewish baptism of proselytes. Then we find in the New Testament narratives of baptisms that "households" were baptized-of Lydia (Acts 16:15), of the jailer at Philippi (Acts 16:32), of Stephanas (1 Corinthians 1:16). It is never said that the children of the household were exempted from the sacred rite. One has only to remember the position of the head of the household in that ancient world, to recollect how the household was thought to be embodied in its head, to see how the repentance and faith of the head of the household was looked upon as including those of all the members, not merely children but servants, to feel that had the children been excluded from sharing in the rite the exclusion would have seemed such an unusual thing that it would have at least been mentioned and explained. our Lord expressly made very young children the types of those who entered into His kingdom (Mark 10:14-16); and Paul so unites parents with children in the faith of Christ that he does not hesitate to call the children of the believing husband or wife "holy," and to imply that the children had passed from a state of "uncleanness" to a state of "holiness" through the faith of a parent. All these things seem to point to the fact that the rite which was the door of entance into the visible community of the followers of Jesus was shared in by the children of believing parents. Besides evidence for the baptism of children goes back to the earliest times of the sub-apostolic church. Irenaeus was the disciple of Polycarp, who had been the disciple of John, and it is difficult to draw any other conclusion from his statements than that he believed that the baptism of infants had been an established practice in the church long before his days (Adv. Haer., II, 22; compare 39). The witness of Tertullian is specially interesting; for he himself plainly thinks that adult baptism is to be preferred to the baptism of infants. He makes it plain that the custom of baptizing infants existed in his days, and we may be sure from the character and the learning of the man, that had he been able to affirm that infant-baptism had been a recent innovation and had not been a long-established usage descending from apostolic times, he would certainly have had no hesitation in using what would have seemed to him a very convincing way of dealing with his opponents. Tertullian's testimony comes from the end of the 2nd century or the beginning of the 3rd century. Origen, the most learned Christian writer during the first three centuries and who comes a little later than Tertullian, in his 14th Homily on Luke bears witness to the fact that the baptism of infants was usual. He argues that original sin belongs to children because the church baptizes them. At the same time it is plain from a variety of evidence too long to cite that the baptism of infants was not a universal practice in the early church. The church of the early centuries was a mission church. It drew large numbers of its members from heathendom. In every mission church the baptism of adults will naturally take the foremost place and be most in evidence. But is is clear that many Christians were of the opinion of Tertullian and believed that baptism ought not to be administered to children but should be confined to adults. Nor was this a theory only; it was a continuous practice handed down from one generation to another in some Christian families. In the 4th century, few Christian leaders took a more important place than Basil the Great and his brother Gregory of Nyssa. They belonged to a family who had been Christians for some generations; yet neither of the brothers was baptized until after his personal conversion, which does not appear to have come until they had attained the years of manhood. The whole evidence seems to show that in the early church, down to the end of the 4th century at least, infant and adult baptism were open questions and that the two practices existed side by side with each other without disturbing the unity of the churches. In the later Pelagian controversy it became evident that theory and practice of infant baptism had been able to assert itself and that the ordinance was always administered to children of members of the church.
(2) Baptism for the Dead.
Paul refers to a custom of "baptizing for the dead" (1 Corinthians 15:29). What this "vicarious baptism" or "baptism for the dead" was it is impossible to say, even whether it was practiced within the primitive Christian church. The passage is a it very difficult one and has called forth a very large number of explanations, which are mere guesses. Paul neither commends nor disapproves of it; he simply mentions its existence and uses the fact as an argument for the resurrection. SeeBAPTISM FOR THE DEAD.
IV. The Formula of Baptism.
The Formula of Christian baptism, in the mode which prevailed, is given in Matthew 28:19: "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." But it is curious that the words are not given in any description of Christian baptism until the time of Justin Martyr: and there they are not repeated exactly but in a slightly extended and explanatory form. He says that Christians "receive the washing with water in the name of God, the Ruler and Father of the universe, and of our Saviour, Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit" (1 Apol., 61). In every account of the performance of the rite in apostolic times a much shorter formula is in use. The 3,000 believers were baptized on the Day of Pentecost "in the name of Jesus" (Acts 2:38); and the same formula was used at the baptism of Cornelius and those that were with him (Acts 10:48). Indeed it would appear to have been the usual one, from Paul's question to the Corinthians: "Were ye baptized into the name of Paul?" (1 Corinthians 1:13). The Samaritans were baptized "into the name of the Lord Jesus" (Acts 8:16); and the same formula (a common one in acts of devotion) was used in the case of the disciples at Ephesus. In some instances it is recorded that before baptism the converts were asked to make some confession of their faith, which took the form of declaring that Jesus was the Lord or that Jesus Christ was the Son of God. It may be inferred from a phrase in 1 Peter 3:21 that a formal interrogation was made, and that the answer was an acknowledgment that Jesus Christ was Lord. Scholars have exercised a great deal of ingenuity in trying to explain how, with what appear to be the very words of Jesus given in the Gospel of Matthew, another and much shorter formula seems to have been used throughout the apostolic church. Some have imagined that the shorter formula was that used in baptizing disciples during the lifetime of our Lord (John 4:1, 2), and that the apostles having become accustomed to it continued to use it during their lives. Others declare that the phrases "in the name of Jesus Christ" or "of the Lord Jesus" are not meant to give the formula of baptism, but simply to denote that the rite was Christian. Others think that the full formula was always used and that the narratives in the Book of Ac and in the Pauline Epistles are merely brief summaries of what took place-an idea rather difficult to believe in the absence of any single reference to the longer formula. Others, again, insist that baptism in the name of one of the persons of the Trinity implies baptism in the name of the Three.
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MILLENNIUM, PREMILLENNIAL VIEW
Divergent Views-Scope of Article I. THE TEACHING OF JESUS
The Millennium Not before the Advent
(1) Parable of the Wheat and Tares
(2) Parable of the Pounds
II. TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
1. Expectation of the Advent
2. Possibility of Survival-Its Implications
3. Prophecy of "Man of Sin"
4. No Room for Millennium
5. Harmony of Christ and Apostles
Divergent Views-Scope of Article:
The great majority of evangelical Christians believe that the kingdom of God shall have universal sway over the earth, and that righteousness and peace and the knowledge of the Lord shall everywhere prevail. This happy time is commonly called the Millennium, or the thousand years' reign. Divergent views are entertained as to how it is to be brought about. Many honest and faithful men hold that it will be introduced by the agencies now at work, mainly by the preaching of the gospel of Christ and the extension of the church over the world. An increasing number of men equally honest teach that the Millennium will be established by the visible advent of the Lord Jesus Christ. The aim of this brief article is to set forth some of the Scriptural grounds on which this latter view rests. No reference will be made to objections, to counter-objections and interpretations; the single point, namely, that the Millennium succeeds the second coming of Jesus Christ, that it does not precede it, will be rigidly adhered to. Those who hold this view believe that neither Christ nor His apostles taught, on fair principles of interpretation, that the Millennium must come before His advent.
I. The Teaching of Jesus.
The Lord Jesus said nothing about world-wide conversion in His instructions to His disciples touching their mission (Matthew 28:19, 20 Mark 16:15 Luke 24:46-48 Acts 1:8).
The Millennium Not before the Advent:
They were to be His witnesses and carry His message to the race, but He does not promise the race will receive their testimony, or that men will generally accept His salvation. On the contrary, He explicitly forewarns them that they shall be hated of all men, that sufferings and persecutions shall be their lot, but if they are faithful to the end their reward will be glorious. But world-wide evangelism does not mean world-wide conversion. The universal offer of salvation does not pledge its universal acceptance. In His instructions and predictions the Lord does not let fall a hint that their world-wide mission will result in world-wide conversion, or that thereby the longed-for Millennium will be ushered in. But there is a time to come when the knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth as the waters the sea, when teaching shall no longer be needed, for all shall know Him from the least to the greatest. Our dispensation, accordingly, cannot be the last, for the effects stated in that are not contemplated in the instructions and the results of this. To the direct revelation of Christ on the subject we now turn. In two parables He explicitly announces the general character and the consummation of the gospel age, and these we are briefly to examine.
(1) Parable of the Wheat and Tares (Matthew 13:24-30, 36-43).
Happily we are not left to discover the meaning and scope of this parable. We enjoy the immense advantage of having our Lord's own interpretation of it. Out of His Divine explanation certain most important facts emerge:
(a) The parable covers the whole period between the first and second advents of the Saviour. The Sower is Christ Himself. He began the good work; He opened the new era.
(b) The field is the world. Christ's work is no longer confined to a single nation or people as once; it contemplates the entire race.
(c) His people, the redeemed, begotten by His word and Spirit, are the good seed. Through them the gospel of His grace is to be propagated throughout the whole world.
(d) The devil is also a sower. He is the foul counterfeiter of God 's work. He sowed the tares, the sons of the evil one.
(e) The tares are not wicked men in general, but a particular class of wicked brought into close and contaminating association with the children of God. "Within the territory of the visible church the tares are deposited" (Dr. David Brown). It is the corruption of Christendom that is meant, a gigantic fact to which we cannot shut our eyes.
(f) The mischief, once done, cannot be corrected. "Let both grow together until the harvest." Christendom once corrupted remains so to the end.
(g) The harvest is the consummation of the age. This is the culmination of our age; it terminates with the advent and judgment of the Son of God. He will send forth His angels who will "gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire..... Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father."
Here, then, we have the beginning, progress and consummation of our age. Christ Himself introduced it, and it was distinguished for its purity and its excellence. But the glorious system of truth was soon marred by the cunning craftiness of Satan. No after-vigilance or earnestness on the part of the servants could repair the fatal damage. They were forbidden to attempt the removal of the tares, for by so doing they would endanger the good grain, so intermixed had the two become! The expulsion of the tares is left for angels' hands in the day of the harvest. This is our Lord's picture of our age: a Zizanian field wherein good and bad, children of God and children of the evil one, live side by side down to the harvest which is the end. In spite of all efforts to correct and reform, the corruption of Christendom remains, nay, grows apace. To expel the vast crop of false doctrine, false professors, false teachers, is now as it has been for centuries an impossibility. Christ's solemn words hold down to the final consummation, "Let both grow together until the harvest." In such conditions a millennium of universal righteousness and knowledge of the Lord seems impossible until the separation takes place at the harvest.
(2) Parable of the Pounds (Luke 19:11-27).
Jesus was on His last journey to Jerusalem, and near the city. The multitude was eager, expectant. They supposed the Kingdom of God was immediately to appear. The parable was spoken to correct this mistake and to reveal certain vital features of it. "A certain nobleman went into a far country, to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return." There is little difficulty in grasping the main teaching of this suggestive narrative. The nobleman is the Lord Jesus Christ Himself; the far country is heaven; the kingdom He goes to receive is the Messianic kingdom, for the victorious establishment of which all God's people long and pray. The servants are those who sustain responsible relation to the Lord because of the trust committed to them. The rebellious citizens are those who refuse subjection to His will and defy His authority. His return is His second coming. The parable spans the whole period between His ascension and His advent. It measures across our entire age. It tells of Christ's going away, it describes the conduct of His servants and of the citizens during His absence; it foretells His return and the reckoning that is to follow. Mark the words, "And it came to pass, when he was come back again, having received the kingdom." It is in heaven He receives the investiture of the kingdom (Revelation 5:6). It is on earth that He administers it. The phrase, "having received the kingdom," cannot by any dexterity of exegesis be made to denote the end of time or the end of the Millennium, or of His receiving it at the end of the world; it is then He delivers it up to God, even the Father (1 Corinthians 24-28).
The order and sequence of events as traced by the Lord disclose the same fact made prominent in the parable of the Wheat and Tares, namely, that during the whole period between His ascension and His return there is no place for a Millennium of world-wide righteousness and prosperity. But Scripture warrants the belief that such blessedness is surely to fill the earth, and if so, it must be realized after Christ's second coming.
II. Teaching of the Apostles.
1. Expectation of the Advent:
There is no unmistakable evidence that the apostles expected a thousand years of prosperity and peace during Christ's absence in heaven. In Acts 1:11 we read that the heavenly visitants said to the apostles, "Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye looking into heaven?" This attitude of the men of Galilee became the permanent attitude of the primitive church. It was that of the uplifted gaze. Paul's exultant words respecting the Thessalonians might well be applied to all believers of that ancient time, that they "turned unto God from idols, to serve a living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven" (1 Thessalonians 1:9, 10). It is the prominent theme of the New Testament epistles. In the New Testament it is mentioned 318 t. One verse in every thirty, we are told, is occupied with it. It is found shining with a glad hope in the first letters Paul wrote, those to the Thessalonians. It is found in the last he wrote, the second to Timothy, gleaming with the bright anticipation of the crown he was to receive at the Redeemer's appearing. James quickens the flagging courage, and reanimates the drooping spirits of believers with this trumpet peal: "Be ye also patient; establish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord is at hand" (5:8). Peter exhorts to all holy conversation and godliness by the like motive: "Looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God" (2 Peter 3:12 margin). Amid the deepening gloom and the gathering storms of the last days, Jude 1:14 cheers us with the words of Enoch, the seventh from Adam, `Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgment upon.... the ungodly.' John closes the Canon with the majestic words, "Behold, he cometh with the clouds," "Behold, I come quickly." These men, speaking by the Spirit of the living God, know there can be no reign of universal righteousness, no deliverance of groaning creation, no redemption of the body, no binding of Satan, and no Millennium while the tares grow side by side with the wheat; while the ungodly world flings its defiant shout after the retiring nobleman, "We will not have this man to reign over us"; and while Satan, that strong, fierce spirit, loose in this age, deceives, leads captive, devours and ruins as he lists. Therefore the passionate longing and the assurance of nearing deliverance at the coming of Christ fill so large a place in the faith and the life of the primitive disciples.
2. Possibility of Survival-Its Implications:
In 1 Thessalonians 4:17 Paul speaks of himself and others who may survive till the Lord's coming: "Then we that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air" (compare 1 Corinthians 15:51, 52).
This implies fairly that the apostle did not know that long ages would elapse between his own day and Christ's advent. There was to his mind the possibility of His coming in his lifetime; in fact, he seems to have an expectation that he would not pass through the gates of death at all, that he would live to see the Lord in His glorious return, for the day and the hour of the advent is absolutely concealed even from inspired men. The inference is perfectly legitimate that Paul and his fellow-disciples did not anticipate that a thousand years should intervene between them and the coming.
3. Prophecy of the "Man of Sin":
Furthermore, the Thessalonians had fallen into a serious mistake (2 Thessalonians 2:1-2). By a false spirit, or by a forged epistle as from Paul, they were led to believe that "the day of the Lord is now present" (English Revised Version), 2 Thessalonians 2:2. The apostle sets them right about this solemn matter. He assures them that some things must precede that day, namely, "the falling away," or apostasy, and the appearing of a powerful adversary, whom he calls "the Man of Sin," and describes as "the Son of Perdition." Neither the one nor the other of these two, the apostasy and the Man of Sin, was then present. But the road was fast getting ready for them. There was the "mystery of lawlessness" already at work at the time, and although a certain restraint held it in check, nevertheless when the check was removed it would at once precipitate the apostasy, and it would issue in the advent of the Man of Sin, and he should be brought to nought by the personal coming of Jesus Christ. This appears to be the import of the passage.
Here was the appropriate place to settle forever for these saints and for all others the question of a long period to intervene before the Saviour's advent. How easy and natural it would have been for Paul to write, "Brethren, there is to be first a time of universal blessedness for the world, the Millennium, and after that there will be an apostasy and the revelation of the Man of Sin whom Christ will destroy by the brightness of His coming." But Paul intimated nothing of the sort. Instead, he distinctly says that the mystery of lawlessness is already working, that it will issue in "the falling away," and then shall appear the great adversary, the Lawless One, who shall meet his doom by the advent of Christ. The mystery of lawlessness, however, is held in restraint, we are told. May it not be possible that the check shall be taken off, then the Millennium succeed, and after that the apostasy and the Son of Perdition? No, for its removal is immediately followed by the coming of the great foe, the Antichrist. For this foe has both an apocalypse and a parousia like Christ Himself. Hence, the lifting of the restraint is sudden, by no means a prolonged process.
4. No Room for Millennium:
The apostle speaks of the commencement, progress, and close of a certain period. It had commenced when he wrote. Its close is at the coming of Christ. What intervenes? The continuance of the evil secretly at work in the body of professing Christians, and its progress from the incipient state to the maturity of daring wickedness which will be exhibited in the Man of Sin. This condition of things fills up the whole period, if we accept Paul's teaching as that of inspired truth. There appears to be no place for a Millennium within the limits which the apostle here sets. The only escape from this conclusion, as it seems to us, is, to deny that the coming of Christ is His actual, personal second coming. But the two words, epiphaneia and parousia, which elsewhere are used separately to denote His advent, are here employed to give "graphic vividness" and certainty to the event, and hence, they peremptorily forbid a figurative interpretation. The conclusion seems unavoidable that there can be no Millennium on this side of the advent of Christ.
5. Harmony of Christ and Apostles:
Our Lord's Olivet prophecy (Matthew 24; Matthew 25 Mark 13 Luke 21) accords fully with the teaching of the apostles on the subject. In that discourse He foretells wars, commotions among the nations, Jerusalem's capture and the destruction of the temple, Israel's exile, Christians persecuted while bearing their testimony throughout the world, cosmic convulsions, unparalleled tribulation and sufferings which terminate only with His advent. From the day this great prophecy was spoken down to the hour of His actual coming He offers no hope of a Millennium. He opens no place for a thousand years of blessedness for the earth.
These are some of the grounds on which Biblical students known as Premillennialists rest their belief touching the coming of the Lord and the Millennial reign.
Premillenarian: H. Bonar, The Coming of the Kingdom of the Lord Jesus; Wood, The Last Things; Guinness, The Approaching End of the Age; Seiss, The Last Times; Gordon, Ecce Venit; Premillennial Essays; Peters, The Theocratic Kingdom; West, The Thousand Years in Both Testaments; Trotter, Plain Papers on Prophetic Subjects; Brookes, Maranatha; Andrews, Christianity and Antichristianity; Kellogg, Predition and Fulfillment.
William G. Moorehead
MILLENNIUM, POSTMILLENNIAL VIEW
See ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
) The act of seeing or beholding; sight; look; survey; examination by the eye; inspection.
2. (n.) Mental survey; intellectual perception or examination; as, a just view of the arguments or facts in a case.
3. (n.) Power of seeing, either physically or mentally; reach or range of sight; extent of prospect.
4. (n.) That which is seen or beheld; sight presented to the natural or intellectual eye; scene; prospect; as, the view from a window.
5. (n.) The pictorial representation of a scene; a sketch, whether drawn or painted; as, a fine view of Lake George.
6. (n.) Mode of looking at anything; manner of apprehension; conception; opinion; judgment; as, to state one's views of the policy which ought to be pursued.
7. (n.) That which is looked towards, or kept in sight, as object, aim, intention, purpose, design; as, he did it with a view of escaping.
8. (n.) Appearance; show; aspect.
9. (v. t.) To see; to behold; especially, to look at with attention, or for the purpose of examining; to examine with the eye; to inspect; to explore.
10. (v. t.) To survey or examine mentally; to consider; as, to view the subject in all its aspects.
Strong's Hebrew7200. raah -- to see...
1), stare (2), staring (1), supervise (1), surely seen (1), take into consideration
(1), take heed (1), tell (1), think (1), understand (1), view
(1), vision (1 ... /hebrew/7200.htm - 7k
7663. sabar -- to inspect, examine
... << 7662, 7663. sabar. 7663a >>. to inspect, examine. Transliteration: sabar Phonetic
Spelling: (saw-bar') Short Definition: hope. hope, tarry, view, wait ...
/hebrew/7663.htm - 5k
7270. ragal -- to go about on foot
... spies (11), spy (9), taught to walk (1). backbite, slander, espy out, teach
to go, view. A primitive root; to walk along; but only ...
/hebrew/7270.htm - 6k
7665. shabar -- to break, break in pieces
... or figuratively) -- break (down, off, in pieces, up), broken((-hearted)), bring
to the birth, crush, destroy, hurt, quench, X quite, tear, view (by mistake for ...
/hebrew/7665.htm - 6k
4758. mareh -- sight, appearance, vision
... From ra'ah; a view (the act of seeing); also an appearance (the thing seen), whether
(real) a shape (especially if handsome, comeliness; often plural the looks ...
/hebrew/4758.htm - 6k
995. bin -- to discern
... know, look well to, mark, perceive, be prudent, regard, (can) skill(-full), teach,
think, (cause, make to, get, give, have) understand(-ing), view, (deal) wise ...
/hebrew/995.htm - 7k
5331. netsach -- eminence, enduring, everlastingness, perpetuity
... splendor, or (subjectively) truthfulness, or (objectively) confidence; but usually
(adverbially), continually (ie To the most distant point of view); --alway(-s ...
/hebrew/5331.htm - 6k
2379. chazoth -- sight, visibility
... Word Origin (Aramaic) from chazah Definition sight, visibility NASB Word Usage visible
(2). sight. (Aramaic) from chaza'; a view -- sight. see HEBREW chaza'. ...
/hebrew/2379.htm - 6k
5048. neged -- in front of, in sight of, opposite to
... especially with preposition) over against or before -- about, (over) against, X
aloof, X far (off), X from, over, presence, X other side, sight, X to view. ...
/hebrew/5048.htm - 6k
5921. al -- upon, above, over
... throughout (3), together (3), too (3), top (1), top* (2), toward (20), toward*
(5), under (12), until (1), upright* (2), upside* (1), urged* (1), view (1), way ...
/hebrew/5921.htm - 8k