im: ifOriginal Word: אּםPart of Speech:
conjunction; hypothetical particle; imperfect; infinitive; interrogative particleTransliteration:
NAS Exhaustive ConcordanceWord Origin
a prim. conjunctionDefinition
although (2), although* (1), certainly (1), either (1), either an or (1), either their or (2), else* (1), except* (22), however* (1), if (588), if* (1), indeed (1), less than* (1), more of her than* (1), more than* (1), most assuredly* (1), never (2), never* (1), nevertheless* (1), no (6), no means (1), none (1), nor (7), nothing (1), O (1), Oh (2), only (4), only* (7), or (75), rather* (11), should (1), since (4), surely (6), surely there shall be neither (1), surely* (35), than* (2), though (35), though* (2), truly (1), truly* (2), unless* (16), until* (7), when (17), whether (16), whether for or (1), whether it is or (1), whether they or (3), whether* (1), without* (2).
Brown-Driver-Briggs אִם conjunction
(= Aramaic if
= if not, except
], Arabic if
= if not, except
) [and in
) if not, but
], Assyrian umma;
also in Arabic
, compare הַאִם
: see NöM p. 208, ZMG 1886, p. 739
; WAG i. § 367 e
) **ᵑ7Onk Jon אִם
, ᵑ7Hag אין
1. hypothetical particle if.
a. construction (see more fully Dr§ 136-138, 143 FriedrichDie Hebr. Condit. sätze 1884): (1) with
imperfect (continued by perfects & waw consecutive; apodosis usually begins with perfect & waw consecutive or bare imperfect; or, if necessary, with imperative or jussive) (a) of future time: Genesis 18:26 אִםאֶֿמְצָא if I shall find 50 righteous in Sodom, וְנָשָׂאתִי I will pardon, etc., Genesis 24:8; Genesis 32:9; Deuteronomy 19:8f.; 1 Kings 1:52; b 1 Kings 6:12; Psalm 89:31; Genesis 42:37; Judges 13:16; 1 Kings 1:52 a Psalm 132:12. (b) of past time (rare, but classical): Genesis 31:8 אִם יאֹמַר if everhe said . . . וְיָָֽלְדִוּ then they used to bear, etc., Exodus 40:37; & in the protestations Job 31:7,13,16,25 etc. (alternating with pff., see below, & with jussives in apodosis) (c) assuming a purely imaginary case (with imperfect in both clauses, like the double optative in Greek), if, though: Genesis 13:16 so that אִםיֿוּכַל if a man were able to number the stars, thy seed also יִמָּנֶה might be numbered, Numbers 22:18; Isaiah 1:18 כַּשָּׁנִים יַלְבִּינוּ ׳אִםיִֿהְיוּ ח though your sins were as scarlet, they should become white as snow, Amos 9:2-4 אִםיַֿחְתְּרוּ though they were to dig into Sheôl, from thence תִּקָּחֵם would my hand fetch them, Psalm 27:3; Psalm 139:8 +. (2) with
participle (expressing either a present process, or an approaching future: apodosis as 1 a) Genesis 24:42,49; Judges 6:36; Judges 9:15; Judges 11:9 אִם מְשִׁיבִים אַתֶּם if ye are going to bring me back . . . ׳וְנָתַן י then ׳י will, etc.; similarly with יֵשׁ or אֵין Genesis 44:26; Exodus 22:2; 1 Samuel 20:8; 1 Samuel 23:23; & with no explicit copula Deuteronomy 22:2; Deuteronomy 25:2; Leviticus 1:3,14, etc. (3) with
perfect (a) of future or present time (continued by perfects & waw consecutive: apodosis as 1 a) Genesis 43:9 אִםלֹֿא הֲבִיאֹתִיו אֵלֶיךָ וְהִצַּגְתִּיו לְפָנֶיךָ if I do not bring him back (si eum non reduxero) and set him before thee, I will be guilty for ever, Genesis 47:6 if thou knowest that there are men of worth among them וְשַׂמְתָּם then make them, etc., Judges 16:17; 2 Samuel 15:33; 2 Kings 7:4; Psalm 41:7; Psalm 94:18; Job 7:4; Job 9:30f. Job 10:14 אִם חָטָאתִי וּשְׁמַרְתָּ֑נִי if I sin, thou watchest me. On אִםנָֿא Genesis 18:3 and elsewhere see נָא. (b) of past time, whether (a) in actual fact, or (β) in an assumed case (the perfect is here continued by the imperfect and waw consecutive; apodosis begins as before). (a) Judges 9:16-19 אִם ֗֗֗ עֲשִׂיתֶם if ye have done honestly וַתַּמְלִיכוּ and have made Abimelech king . . ., 1 Samuel 26:19; especially in protestations, as Psalm 7:4 אִם עָשִׂיתִי זאת if I have done this . . ., let the enemy pursue my soul, etc. Jeremiah 33:25f.; Job 31:5f; Job 31:9, etc. (b) Numbers 5:27 if she have defiled herself וַתִּמְעֹל and been faithless, וּבָאוּ then shall they come, etc., Numbers 15:24; Numbers 35:22-24. (c) with bare perfect in apodosis, in sense of If ... had ..., only Deuteronomy 32:30 אִםלֹֿא כִּי were it not that ..., Psalm 73:15. (לוּ is more usual in such cases.) (4) with
infinitive once (si vera 1.) Job 9:27 אִם אָמְרִי = if I say (literally if (there is) my saying). — Note that the verb following אִם is often strengthened by the infinitive absolute, as Exodus 15:26; Exodus 19:5; Exodus 21:5; Exodus 22:3; Exodus 22:12; Exodus 22:16; Exodus 22:22; Judges 11:30; Judges 14:12; Judges 16:11 etc.; compare DrSm i. 20, 6.
b. Special uses: (1) repeated ... אִם אִם whether ... or (sive ... sive) Exodus 19:13; Deuteronomy 18:3; 2 Samuel 15:21; similarly אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם Genesis 31:52; Jeremiah 42:6; Ezekiel 2:5; Ecclesiastes 11:3; Ecclesiastes 12:14 (compare ... , ... PS250; ... & ... ).(2) After an oath (expressed, or merely implied) אִם (the formula of imprecation being omitted) becomes an emphatic negative, and אִםלֹֿא an emphatic affirmative: 2 Samuel 11:11 by thy life אִםאֶֿעֱשֶׂה אֶתהַֿדָּבָר הַזֶּה (may God bring all manner of evil upon me) if I do this thing! = surely I will not do this thing! (compare the full phrases in 1 Samuel 3:17; 2 Kings 6:31) Genesis 14:23; Genesis 42:15; Numbers 14:23; 1 Samuel 3:14; 1 Samuel 19:6; 2 Kings 2:2; 2 Kings 3:14 & often; Isaiah 22:14; Psalm 89:36; Psalm 95:11; Job 6:28; אִםלֹֿא Numbers 14:28; Joshua 14:9; 1 Kings 20:23; 2 Kings 9:26; Isaiah 5:9; Isaiah 14:24; Jeremiah 15:11; Jeremiah 49:20; Job 1:11 #NAME? Ezekiel; after a negative clause, emphasizing a contrasted idea, Genesis 24:38 (where the explanation by Aramaic אֶלָּא is not supported by Hebrew usage), compare Jeremiah 22:6. Repeated, אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם 2 Samuel 20:20; 2 Kings 3:14; Isaiah 62:8; Jeremiah 38:16; Ezekiel 14:16. In adjurations (with 2nd or 3rd person) = that not Genesis 21:23; Genesis 26:29; Genesis 31:50; 1 Samuel 24:22; 1 Kings 1:51; Songs 2:7; Songs 3:5 +. Of past or present time: 1 Samuel 25:34 as ׳י liveth (I say) that, unless thou hadst hastened ..., כִּי אִם נוֺתַר that surely there had not been left ...! 1 Samuel 17:55 as thy soul liveth אִםיָֿדַעְתִּי if I Know it! 1 Kings 17:12; 1 Kings 18:10 — both אִםיֵֿשׁ (כִּי here merely introduces the fact sworn to, & need not be translated; so 2 Samuel 3:35: see כִּי); Psalm 121:2 אִםלֹֿא (after a negative clause: compare above Genesis 24:38). compare Str§ 90.(3) Part, of wishing, if but ...! oh that ...! (rare) Psalm 81:9 If thou wouldest hearken to me! Psalm 95:7; Psalm 139:19; Proverbs 24:11. compare Exodus 32:32. With an imperative (si vera lectio) Job 34:16 וְאִםִֿבּינָה; and with an anacoluthon, Genesis 23:13 (P) אִםאַֿתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי if thou! — oh that thou wouldst hear me!(4) Nearly = when — with the perfect: (a) of past, Genesis 38:9; Numbers 21:9 וְהָיָה אִםנָֿשַׁךְ ֗֗֗ וְרָאָה and it used to be, if or when a serpent had bitten a man, that he would look, etc., Judges 6:3; Psalm 78:34 (see Dr§ 136 δ Obs.); Amos 7:2. (b) of present or future, Isaiah 4:4 אִם רָחַץ when the Lord shall have washed, Isaiah 24:13; Isaiah 28:25; compare Numbers 36:4 (with the imperfect)
c. Compounded with other particles: — (a) בִּלְתִּי אִם except if, except, Genesis 47:18; Judges 7:14; Amos 3:3,4. (β) הֲלוֺא אִם 2 Kings 20:19 (for which Isaiah 39:7 has sim-ply כִּי), perhaps Is it not (good), if ...? (De Di). (γ) כִּיאִֿם, q. v. (δ) עַד אִם Genesis 24:19,33; Isaiah 30:17; Ruth 2:21, & עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם Genesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11, until, properly until if or when. (ε) רַק אִם if only (see below רַק). אִםלֹֿא in Ezekiel 3:6b is very difficult. The Vrss render If I had sent, etc., implying לֻא for אִםלֹֿא (for Ew's אִםלֻֿא = אִלּוּ, q. v., is precarious): Ges Hi Co 'but (אִםלֹֿא after a negative, compare above Genesis 24:38; Psalm 131:2) unto them (Israel) have I sent thee: they can understand thee' (but understand is a dubious rendering of שָׁמַע אֶל).
2. Interrogative particle a. in direct question: (a) alone (not frequently and usually = Num? expecting the answer No, especially in a rhet. style): Genesis 38:17; 1 Kings 1:27; Judges 5:8 מָגֵן אִםיֵֿרָאֶה וָרֹמַח was there a shield to be seen or a spear ...?Isaiah 29:16; and repeated Amos 3:6; Jeremiah 48:27; Job 6:12. (b) more frequently in disjunctive interrogation: (a) הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, expressing a real alternative Joshua 5:13 הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִםלְֿצָרֵינוּ art thou for us, or for our enemies? Judges 9:2; 1 Kings 22:6,15: more often expressing a merely formal alternative, especially in poetry (a rhetorical Num?) Genesis 37:8; Numbers 11:12,22; Judges 11:25b 2 Samuel 19:36; Isaiah 10:15; Isaiah 66:8; Jeremiah 3:5; Habakkuk 3:8; Psalm 77:10; Psalm 78:20; Job 4:17; Job 6:5,6; Job 10:4,5; Job 11:7 etc. (β) הֲ ֗֗֗ וְאִם (rarer than הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, but similar in use) 2 Samuel 24:13 (a real alt.); Isaiah 49:24; Isaiah 50:2; Jeremiah 5:9 (Jeremiah 5:29 אִם) Jeremiah 14:22; Joel 1:2; Joel 4:4; Job 8:3; Job 11:2; Job 21:4; Job 22:3; Job 34:17; Job 40:8f. (formal); Genesis 17:17 P (with an anacoluthon) shall a child ...? וְאִםשָֿׂרָה הֲבַתתִּֿשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֵד or Sarah, — shall she that is 90 years old bear? Proverbs 27:24 (וְאִם after negative clause),
b. in oblique interrogation, if, whether: (a) alone, after verbs of seeing, inquiring, etc. 2 Kings 1:2; Jeremiah 5:1; Jeremiah 30:6; Malachi 3:10; Psalm 139:24; Cant 7:13; Lamentations 1:12; Ezra 2:59; once מִי יוֺדֵעַ אִם who knoweth if ...? i.e. (like haud scio an) perhaps Esther 4:14 (older synonym מִי יוֺדֵעַ alone: see 2 Samuel 12:22; Joel 2:14; Jonah 3:9). (b) disjunctively הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם Genesis 27:21; Numbers 13:18-20; so אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם Joshua 24:15.
c. compounded with הֲ, הַאִם Numbers 17:28 הַאִם תַּמְנוּ לִגְוֺעַ probably an emphatic Num? Shall we ever have finished dying? Job 6:13 difficult: perhaps Is it that my help is not in me? (a forcible means of expressing that that which might be thought impossible is nevertheless the case); Hi as an aposiop., If my help is not in me (am I still to wait) ? (The view that הַאִם = הֲלֹא nonne? is inconsistent with the fact that אִם in a question has regularly the force of Num?)
אֵם see אמם. Below
אַמָּה, אֻמָּה see אמם.
אמה (assumed as √ of following, which how-ever probably biliteral compare Sta§ 188; see also LagBN 82).
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrog., whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence, as a negative, not -- (and, can-, doubtless, if, that) (not), + but, either, + except, + more(-over if, than), neither, nevertheless, nor, oh that, or, + save (only, -ing), seeing, since, sith, + surely (no more, none, not), though, + of a truth, + unless, + verily, when, whereas, whether, while, + yet.