Bible ConcordanceSynagogue (52 Occurrences)
Matthew 9:18 While he told these things to them, behold, a ruler came and worshiped him, saying, "My daughter has just died, but come and lay your hand on her, and she will live." (See NAS)
Matthew 12:9 He departed there, and went into their synagogue. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 12:14 But the Pharisees after leaving the synagogue consulted together against Him, how they might destroy Him. (WEY)
Matthew 13:54 Coming into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, "Where did this man get this wisdom, and these mighty works? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:21 They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:23 Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:29 Immediately, when they had come out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 3:1 He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 3:6 But no sooner had the Pharisees left the synagogue than they held a consultation with the Herodians against Jesus, to devise some means of destroying Him. (WEY)
Mark 5:22 Behold, one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name, came; and seeing him, he fell at his feet, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 5:35 While he was still speaking, people came from the synagogue ruler's house saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Mark 5:36 But Jesus, when he heard the message spoken, immediately said to the ruler of the synagogue, "Don't be afraid, only believe." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 5:38 He came to the synagogue ruler's house, and he saw an uproar, weeping, and great wailing. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 6:2 When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:16 He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:20 He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:28 They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:33 In the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean demon, and he cried out with a loud voice, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:38 He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's mother-in-law was afflicted with a great fever, and they begged him for her. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 6:6 It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 7:5 for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 8:41 Behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue. He fell down at Jesus' feet, and begged him to come into his house, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 8:49 While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. Don't trouble the Teacher." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 13:14 The ruler of the synagogue, being indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:59 He said these things in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:22 His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:34 "You," they replied, "were wholly begotten and born in sin, and do *you* teach *us*?" And they put him out of the synagogue. (WEY BBE)
John 12:42 Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 16:2 They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:20 Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 6:9 But some of those who were of the synagogue called "The Libertines," and of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, and of those of Cilicia and Asia arose, disputing with Stephen. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:14 But they, passing on from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:15 After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:42 So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. (WEB KJV WEY WBS YLT NIV)
Acts 13:43 Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. (WEB ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 14:1 It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 17:1 Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a Jewish synagogue. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 17:2 Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures, (See NIV)
Acts 17:10 The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 17:17 So he reasoned in the synagogue with the Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:4 He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath, and persuaded Jews and Greeks. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:7 He departed there, and went into the house of a certain man named Justus, one who worshiped God, whose house was next door to the synagogue. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:8 Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord with all his house. Many of the Corinthians, when they heard, believed and were baptized. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:17 Then all the Greeks laid hold on Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. Gallio didn't care about any of these things. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:19 He came to Ephesus, and he left them there; but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:26 He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside, and explained to him the way of God more accurately. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 19:8 He entered into the synagogue, and spoke boldly for a period of three months, reasoning and persuading about the things concerning the Kingdom of God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 22:19 I said,'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 26:11 Punishing them often in all the synagogues, I tried to make them blaspheme. Being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 2:2 For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your synagogue, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in; (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT)
Revelation 2:9 "I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 3:9 Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but lie. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
ThesaurusSynagogue (52 Occurrences)...
Some, however, are of opinion that it was specially during the Babylonian captivity
that the system of synagogue
worship, if not actually introduced, was at .../s/synagogue.htm - 50k
Synagogue's (2 Occurrences)
...Synagogue's (2 Occurrences). ... Luke 8:49 While he still spoke, one from the ruler of
the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. ...
/s/synagogue's.htm - 7k
Libertines (1 Occurrence)
... lib'-er-tinz, li-bur'-tinz (Libertinoi): These were among Stephen's opponents:
"There arose certain of them that were of the synagogue called (the synagogue...
/l/libertines.htm - 11k
Official (45 Occurrences)
... Mark 5:35 While he was still speaking, people came from the synagogue ruler's house
saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more?" (See NAS). ...
/o/official.htm - 20k
Jairus (6 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only
daughter Jesus restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). ...
/j/jairus.htm - 10k
Warden (8 Occurrences)
... Luke 8:41 Just then there came a man named Jair, a Warden of the Synagogue, who
threw himself at the feet of Jesus, and entreated Him to come to his house; (WEY ...
/w/warden.htm - 9k
... 2. Based on the Synagogue Plan: The local synagogue of the Jewish church was under
the care and control of a body of representative men called "the elders ...
/p/presbyter.htm - 14k
Presbytery (1 Occurrence)
... 2. Based on the Synagogue Plan: The local synagogue of the Jewish church was under
the care and control of a body of representative men called "the elders ...
/p/presbytery.htm - 14k
Justus (3 Occurrences)
... (2.) A Jewish proselyte at Corinth, in whose house, next door to the synagogue,
Paul held meetings and preached after he left the synagogue (Acts 18:7). ...
/j/justus.htm - 12k
Tyrannus (1 Occurrence)
... daily for the space of two years with those who came to him (Acts 19:9). Some have
supposed that he was a Jew, and that his "school" was a private synagogue. ...
/t/tyrannus.htm - 8k
Greek752. archisunagogos -- ruler of a synagogue ...
ruler of a synagogue
. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: archisunagogos
Phonetic Spelling: (ar-khee-soon-ag'-o-gos) Short Definition: a leader of ... /greek/752.htm - 8k
4864. sunagoge -- a bringing together, by ext. an assembling ...
... an assembling, hence a synagogue. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration:
sunagoge Phonetic Spelling: (soon-ag-o-gay') Short Definition: an assembly ...
/greek/4864.htm - 7k
2383. Iairos -- Jairus, the ruler of a synagogue in Palestine
... Jairus, the ruler of a synagogue in Palestine. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
Transliteration: Iairos Phonetic Spelling: (ee-ah'-i-ros) Short Definition ...
/greek/2383.htm - 6k
4988. Sosthenes -- "of safe strength," Sosthenes, the name of a ...
... << 4987, 4988. Sosthenes. 4989 >>. "of safe strength," Sosthenes, the name
of a ruler of a synagogue and of a Christian. Part of Speech ...
/greek/4988.htm - 6k
3032. Libertinos -- Freedman, the name of a synagogue
... Freedman, the name of a synagogue. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration:
Libertinos Phonetic Spelling: (lib-er-tee'-nos) Short Definition: a freedman ...
/greek/3032.htm - 6k
656. aposunagogos -- expelled from the congregation
... of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: aposunagogos Phonetic Spelling: (ap-os-oon-
ag'-o-gos) Short Definition: away from the synagogue, excommunicated Definition ...
/greek/656.htm - 6k
1577. ekklesia -- an assembly, a (religious) congregation
... compound of ek and a derivative of kaleo; a calling out, ie (concretely) a popular
meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian ...
/greek/1577.htm - 8k
320. anagnosis -- recognition, reading
... Phonetic Spelling: (an-ag'-no-sis) Short Definition: reading Definition: recognition,
reading; public reading (of the law and prophets in synagogue or church). ...
/greek/320.htm - 6k
2921. Krispos -- Crispus, a Corinthian Christian
... Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Krispos Phonetic Spelling: (kris'-pos)
Short Definition: Crispus Definition: Crispus, ruler of the synagogue at Corinth ...
/greek/2921.htm - 6k
5257. huperetes -- an underling, servant
... hoop-ay-ret'-ace) Short Definition: a servant, an attendant Definition: a servant,
an attendant, (a) an officer, lictor, (b) an attendant in a synagogue, (c) a ...
/greek/5257.htm - 7k
Smith's Bible DictionarySynagogue
- History . --The word synagogue (sunagoge), which means a "congregation," is used in the New Testament to signify a recognized place of worship. A knowledge of the history and worship of the synagogues is of great importance, since they are the characteristic institution of the later phase of Judaism. They appear to have arisen during the exile, in the abeyance of the temple-worship, and to have received their full development on the return of the Jews from captivity. The whole history of Ezra presupposes the habit of solemn, probably of periodic, meetings. (Ezra 8:15; Nehemiah 8:2; 9:1; Zechariah 7:5) After the Maccabaean struggle for independence, we find almost every town or village had its one or more synagogues. Where the Jews were not in sufficient numbers to be able to erect and fill a building, there was the proseucha (proseuche), or place of prayer, sometimes open, sometimes covered in, commonly by a running stream or on the seashore, in which devout Jews and proselytes met to worship, and perhaps to read. (Acts 16:13) Juven. Sat. iii. 296. It is hardly possible to overestimate the influence of the system thus developed. To it we may ascribe the tenacity with which, after the Maccabaean struggle, the Jews adhered to the religion of their fathers, and never again relapsed into idolatry.
- Structure . --The size of a synagogue varied with the population. Its position was, however, determinate. If stood, if possible, on the highest ground, in or near the city to which it belonged. And its direction too was fixed. Jerusalem was the Kibleh of Jewish devotion. The synagogue was so constructed that the worshippers, as they entered and as they prayed, looked toward it. The building was commonly erected at the cost of the district. Sometimes it was built by a rich Jew, or even, as in (Luke 7:5) by a friend or proselyte. In the internal arrangement of the synagogue we trace an obvious analogy to the type of the tabernacle. At the upper or Jerusalem end stood the ark, the chest which, like the older and more sacred ark contained the Book of the Law. It gave to that end the name and character of a sanctuary. This part of the synagogue was naturally the place of honor. Here were the "chief seats," for which Pharisees and scribes strove so eagerly, (Matthew 23:6) and to which the wealthy and honored worshipper was invited. (James 2:2,3) Here too, in front of the ark, still reproducing the type of the tabernacle, was the eight-branched lamp, lighted only on the greater festivals. Besides this there was one lamp kept burning perpetually. More toward the middle of the building was a raised platform, on which several persons could stand at once, and in the middle of this rose a pulpit, in which the reader stood to read the lesson or sat down to teach. The congregation were divided, men on one side, women on the other a low partition, five or six feet high, running between them. The arrangements of modern synagogues, for many centuries, have made the separation more complete by placing the women in low side-galleries, screened off a lattice-work.
- Officers. --In smaller towns there was often but one rabbi. Where a fuller organization was possible, there was a college of elders, (Luke 7:3) presided over by one who was "the chief of the synagogue." (Luke 8:41,49; 13:14; Acts 18:8,17) The most prominent functionary in a large synagogue was known as the sheliach (= legatus), the officiating minister who acted as the delegate of the congregation and was therefore the chief reader of prayers, etc.., in their name. The chazzan or "minister" of the synagogue, (Luke 4:20) had duties of a lower kind, resembling those of the Christian deacon or sub-deacon. He was to open the doors and to prepare the building for service. Besides these there were ten men attached to every synagogue, known as the ballanim, (--otiosi). They were supposed to be men of leisure not obliged to labor for their livelihood able therefore to attend the week-day as well as the Sabbath services. The legatus of the synagogues appears in the angel , (Revelation 1:20; 2:1) perhaps also in the apostle of the Christian Church.
- Worship . --It will be enough, in this place, to notice in what way the ritual, no less than the organization, was connected with the facts of the New Testament history, and with the life and order of the Christian Church. From the synagogue came the use of fixed forms of prayer. To that the first disciples had been accustomed from their youth. They had asked their Master to give them a distinctive one, and he had complied with their request, (Luke 11:1) as the Baptist had done before for his disciples, as every rabbi did for his. "Moses" was "read in the synagogues every Sabbath day," (Acts 15:21) the whole law being read consecutively, so as to be completed, according to one cycle, in three years. The writings of the prophets were read as second lessons in a corresponding order. They were followed by the derash (Acts 13:15) the exposition, the sermon of the synagogue. The conformity extends also to the times of prayer. In the hours of service this was obviously the case. The third, sixth and ninth hours were in the times of the New Testament, (Acts 3:1; 10:3,9) and had been probably for some time before, (Psalms 55:17; Daniel 6:10) the fixed times of devotion. The same hours, it is well known, were recognized in the Church of the second century, probably in that of the first also. The solemn days of the synagogue were the second, the fifth and the seventh, the last or Sabbath being the conclusion of the whole. The transfer of the sanctity of the Sabbath to the Lord's day involved a corresponding change in the order of the week, and the first, the fourth the sixth became to the Christian society what the other days had been to the Jewish. From the synagogue, lastly, come many less conspicuous practices, which meet us in the liturgical life of the first three centuries: Ablution, entire or partial, before entering the place of meeting, (John 13:1-15; Hebrews 10:22) standing, and not kneeling, as the attitude of prayer, (Luke 18:11) the arms stretched out; the face turned toward the Kibleh of the east; the responsive amen of the congregation to the prayers and benedictions of the elders. (1 Corinthians 14:16)
- Judicial functions . --The language of the New Testament shows that the officers of the synagogue exercised in certain cases a judicial power. If is not quite so easy, however to define the nature of the tribunal and the precise limits of its jurisdiction. In two of the passages referred to-- (Matthew 10:17; Mark 13:9) --they are carefully distinguished from the councils. It seems probable that the council was the larger tribunal of twenty-three, which sat in every city, and that under the term synagogue we are to understand a smaller court, probably that of the ten judges mentioned in the Talmud. Here also we trace the outline of a Christian institution. The Church, either by itself or by appointed delegates, was to act as a court of arbitration in all disputes its members. The elders of the church were not however to descend to the trivial disputes of daily life. For the elders, as for those of the synagogue, were reserved the graver offences against religion and morals.
ATS Bible DictionarySynagogue
A word which primarily signifies an assembly; but, like the word church, came at length to be applied to the buildings in which the ordinary Jewish assemblies for the worship of God were convened. From the silence of the Old Testament with reference to these places of worship, many commentators and writers of biblical antiquities are of opinion that they were not in use till after the Babylonish captivity; and that before that time, the Jews held their social meetings for religious worship either in the open air or in the houses of the prophets. See 2 Kings 4:23. In Psalm 74:8, it is at least very doubtful whether the Hebrew word rendered synagogues, refers to synagogue-buildings such as existed after the captivity. Properly the word signifies only places where religious assemblies were held. In the time of our Savior they abounded.
Synagogues could only be erected in those places when ten men of age, learning, piety, and easy circumstances could be found to attend to the service, which was enjoined in them. Large towns had several synagogues; and soon after the captivity their utility became so obvious, that they were scattered over the land, and became the parish churches of the Jewish nation. Their number appears to have been very considerable; and when the erection of a synagogue was considered a mark of piety, Luke 7:5, or a passport to heaven, we need not be surprised to hear that they were multiplied beyond all necessity, so that in Jerusalem alone there were not fewer than 460 or 480. They were generally built on the most elevated ground, and consisted of two parts. The westerly part of the building contained the ark or chest in which the book of the law and the section of the prophets were deposited, and was called the temple by way of eminence. The other, in which the congregation assembled, was termed the body of the synagogue. The people sat with their faces towards the temple, and the elders in the contrary direction, and opposite to the people; the space between them being occupied by the pulpit or reading desk. The seats of the elders were considered more holy than the others, and are spoken of as "the chief seats in the synagogues," Matthew 23:6. The women sat by themselves in a gallery secluded by latticework.
The stated office-bearers in every synagogue were ten, forming six distinct classes. We notice first the Archisynagogos, or ruler of the synagogue, who regulated all its concerns and granted permission to address the assembly. Of these there were three in each synagogue. Dr. Lightfoot believes them to have possessed a civil power, and to have constituted the lowest civil tribunal, commonly known as "the council of three," whose office it was to judge minor offences against religion, and also to decide the differences that arose between any members of the synagogue, as to money matters, thefts, losses, etc. To these officers there is perhaps an allusion in 1 1 Corinthians 6:5. See also JUDGMENT. The second officer-bearer was "the angel of the synagogue," or minister of the congregation, who prayed and preached. In allusion to these, the pastors of the Asiatic churches are called "angels," Revelation 2:3.
The service of the synagogue was as follows: The people being seated, the "angel of the synagogue" ascended the pulpit, and offered up the public prayers, the people rising from their seats, and standing in a posture of deep devotion, Matthew 6:5 Mark 11:25 Luke 18:11,13. The prayers were nineteen in number, and were closed by reading the execration. The next thing was the repetition of their phylacteries; after which came the reading of the law and the prophets. The former was divided into fifty-four sections, with which were united corresponding portions from the prophets; (see Acts 13:15,27 15:21) and these were read through once in the course of the year. After the return from the captivity, an interpreter was employed in reading the law and the prophets, Nehemiah 8:2-8, who interpreted them into the Syro-Chaldaic dialect, which was then spoken by the people. The last part of the service was the expounding of the Scriptures, and preaching from them to the people. This was done either by one of the officer, or by some distinguished person who happened to be present. The reader will recollect one memorable occasion on which our Savior availed himself of the opportunity thus afforded to address his countrymen, Luke 4:20; and there are several other instances recorded of himself and his disciples teaching in the synagogues. See Matthew 13:54 Mark 6:2 John 18:20 Acts 13:5,15,44 14:1:17:2-4,10 18:4,26 19:8. The whole service was concluded with a short prayer or benediction.
The Jewish synagogues were not only used for the purposes of divine worship, but also for courts of judicature, in such matters as fell under the cognizance of the Council of Three, of which we have already spoken. On such occasions, the sentence given against the offender was sometimes, after the manner of prompt punishment still prevalent in the East, carried into effect in the place where the council was assembled. Hence we read of persons being beaten in the synagogue, and scourged in the synagogue, Matthew 10:17 Mark 13:9 Acts 22:19 26:11 2 1 Corinthians 11:24. To be "put out of the synagogue," or excommunicated from the Jewish church and deprived of the national privileges, was punishment much dreaded, John 9:22 12:42 16:2. In our own day the Jews erect synagogues wherever they are sufficiently numerous, and assemble on their Sabbath for worship; this being conducted, that is, the reading or chanting of the Old Testament and of prayers, in the original Hebrew, though it is a dead language spoken by few among them. Among the synagogues of Jerusalem, now eight or ten in number, are some for Jews of Spanish origin, and others for German Jews, etc., as in the time of Paul there were separate synagogues for the Libertines, Cyreians, Alexandrians, etc., Acts 6:9.
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaSATAN, SYNAGOGUE OF
The expression occurs neither in the Hebrew nor in the Greek of the Old Testament, nor in Apocrypha. Three passages in the Old Testament and one in Apocrypha suggest the idea conveyed in the expression. In Numbers 14:27, 35, Yahweh expresses His wrath against "the evil congregation" Septuagint sunagoge ponera) which He threatens to consume in the wilderness. In Psalm 21 (22):16, we find, "A company of evil doers (the Septuagint sunagoge ponereuomenon) have enclosed me." In Sirach 16:6, we read, "In the congregation of sinners (the Septuagint sunagoge hamartolon) shall a fire be kindled."
Only in the New Testament occurs the phrase "synagogue of Satan," and here only twice (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9). Three observations are evident as to who constituted "the synagogue of Satan" in Smyrna and Philadelphia.
(1) They claimed to be Jews, i.e. they were descendants of Abraham, and so laid claim to the blessings promised by Yahweh to him and his seed.
(2) But they are not regarded by John as real Jews, i.e. they are not the genuine Israel of God (the same conclusion as Paul reached in Romans 2:28).
(3) They are persecutors of the Christians in Smyrna.
The Lord "knows their blasphemy," their sharp denunciations of Christ and Christians. They claim to be the true people of God, but really they are "the synagogue of Satan." The gen. Satana, is probably the possessive gen. These Jewish persecutors, instead of being God's people, are the "assembly of Satan," i.e. Satan's people.
In Polycarp, Mar. xvii.2 (circa 155 A.D.) the Jews of Smyrna were still persecutors of Christians and were conspicuous in demanding and planning the martyrdom of Polycarp the bishop of Smyrna, the same city in which the revelator calls persecuting Jews "the assembly of Satan."
In the 2nd century, in an inscription (CIJ, 3148) describing the classes of population in Smyrna, we find the expression hoi pote Ioudaioi, which Mommsen thinks means "Jews who had abandoned their religion," but which Ramsay says "probably means those who formerly were the nation of the Jews, but have lost the legal standing of a separate people."
Ramsay, The Seven Churches of Asia, chapter xii; Swete, The Apocalypse of John, 31, 32; Polycarp, Mar. xiiiff;.17, 2; Mommsen, Historische Zeitschrift, XXXVII, 417.
Charles B. Williams
3. Spread of Synagogues
4. The Building
(1) The Site
(2) The Structure
(3) The Furniture
5. The Officials
(1) The Elders
(2) The Ruler
(3) The Servant (or Servants)
(4) Delegate of the Congregation
(5) The Interpreter
(6) The Almoners
6. The Service
(1) Recitation of the "Shema` "
(3) Reading of the Law and the Prophets
(4) The Sermon
(5) The Benediction
Synagogue, Greek sunagoge, "gathering" (Acts 13:43), "gathering-place" (Luke 7:5), was the name applied to the Jewish place of worship in later Judaism in and outside of Palestine Proseuche, "a place of prayer" (Acts 16:13), was probably more of the nature of an enclosure, marking off the sacred spot from the profane foot, than of a roofed building like a synagogue. Sabbateion in Ant, XV, i, 6, 2, most probably also meant synagogue. In the Mishna we find for synagogue beth ha-keneceth, in the Targums and Talmud be-khenishta', or simply kenishta'. The oldest Christian meetings and meeting-places were modeled on the pattern of the synagogues, and, in Christian-Palestinian Aramaic the word kenishta' is used for the Christian church (compare Zahn, Tatian's Diatessaron, 335).
That the synagogue was, in the time of our Lord, one of the most important religious institutions of the Jews is clear from the fact that it was thought to have been instituted by Moses (Apion, ii, 17; Philo, De Vita Moses, iii0.27; compare Targum Jeremiah to Exodus 18:20). It must have come into being during the Babylonian exile. At that time the more devout Jews, far from their native land, having no sanctuary or altar, no doubt felt drawn from time to time, especially on Sabbath and feast days, to gather round those who were specially pious and God-fearing, in order to listen to the word of God and engage in some kind of worship. That such meetings were not uncommon is made probable by Ezekiel 14:1; Ezekiel 20:1. This would furnish a basis for the institution of the synagogue. After the exile the synagogue remained and even developed as a counterpoise to the absolute sacerdotalism of the temple, and must have been felt absolutely necessary for the Jews of the Dispersion. Though at first it was meant only for the exposition of the Law, it was natural that in the course of time prayers and preaching should be added to the service. Thus these meetings, which at first were only held on Sabbaths and feast days, came also to be held on other days, and at the same hours with the services in the temple. The essential aim, however, of the synagogue was not prayer, but instruction in the Law for all classes of the people. Philo calls the synagogues "houses of instruction, where the philosophy of the fathers and all manner of virtues were taught" (compare Matthew 4:23 Mark 1:21; Mark 6:2 Luke 4:15, 33; Luke 6:6; Luke 13:10 John 6:59; John 18:20; CAp, ii, 17).
3. Spread of Synagogues:
In Palestine the synagogues were scattered all over the country, all the larger towns having one or more (e.g. Nazareth, Matthew 13:54; Capernaum, Matthew 12:9). In Jerusalem, in spite of the fact that the Temple was there, there were many synagogues, and all parts of the Diaspora were represented by particular synagogues (Acts 6:9). Also in heathen lands, wherever there was a certain number of Jews, they had their own synagogue: e.g. Damascus (Acts 9:2), Salamis (Acts 13:5), Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Thessalonica (Acts 17:1), Corinth (Acts 18:4), Alexandria (Philo, Leg Ad Cai, xx), Rome (ibid., xxiii). The papyrus finds of recent years contain many references to Jewish synagogues in Egypt, from the time of Euergetes (247-221 B.C.) onward. According to Philo (Quod omnis probus liber sit, xii, et al.) the Essenes had their own synagogues, and, from 'Abhoth 3 10, it seems that "the people of the land," i.e. the masses, especially in the country, who were far removed from the influence of the scribes, and were even opposed to their narrow interpretation of the Law had their own synagogues.
4. The Building:
(1) The Site.
There is no evidence that in Palestine the synagogues were always required to be built upon high ground, or at least that they should overlook all other houses (compare PEFS, July, 1878, 126), though we read in the Talmud that this was one of the requirements (Tos Meghillah, edition Zunz, 4:227; Shabbath 11a). From Acts 16:13 it does not follow that synagogues were intentionally built outside the city, and near water for the sake of ceremonial washing (compare Monatsschr. fur Gesch. und Wissensch. des Judenthums, 1889, 167-70; HJP II, 370).
(2) The Structure.
Of the style of the architecture we have no positive records. From the description in the Talmud of the synagogue at Alexandria (Toc Cukkah, edition Zunz, 198 20; Cukkah 51b one imagrees the synagogues to have been modeled on the pattern of the temple or of the temple court. From the excavations in Palestine we find that in the building the stone of the country was used. On the lintels of the doors were different forms of ornamentation, e.g. seven-branched candlesticks, an open flower between two paschal lambs, or vine leaves with bunches of grapes, or, as in Capernaum, a pot of manna between two representations of Aaron's rod. The inside plan "is generally that of two double colonnades, which seem to have formed the body of the synagogue, the aisles East and West being probably used as passages. The intercolumnar distance is very small, never greater than 9 1/2 ft." (Edersheim). Because of a certain adaptation of the corner columns at the northern end, Edersheim supposes that a woman's gallery was once erected there. It does not appear, however, from the Old Testament or New Testament or the oldest Jewish tradition that there was any special gallery for women. It should be noted, as against this conclusion, that in De Vita Contemplativa, attributed by some to Philo, a certain passage (sec. iii) seems to imply the existence of such a gallery.
(3) The Furniture.
We only know that there was a movable ark in which the rolls of the Law and the Prophets were kept. It was called 'aron ha-qodhesh, but chiefly tebhah (Meghillah 3 1; Nedharim 5 5; Ta`anith 2 1, 2), and it stood facing the entrance. According to Ta`anith 15a it was taken out and carried in a procession on fast days. In front of the ark, and facing the congregation, were the "chief seats" (see CHIEF SEATS) for the rulers of the synagogue and the learned men (Matthew 23:6). From Nehemiah 8:4 and 9:4 it appears that the bemah (Jerusalem Meghillah 3 1), a platform from which the Law was read, although it is not mentioned in the New Testament, was of ancient date, and in use in the time of Christ.
5. The Officials:
(1) The Elders.
These officials (Luke 7:3) formed the local tribunal, and in purely Jewish localities acted as a Committee of Management of the affairs of the synagogue (compare Berakhoth 4 7; Nedharim 5 5; Meghillah 3 1). To them belonged, most probably, among other things, the power to excommunicate (compare Ezra 10:8 Luke 6:22 John 9:22; John 12:42; John 16:2; `Edhuyoth 5 6; Ta`anith 3 8; Middoth 2 2).
(2) The Ruler.
Greek archisunagogos (Mark 5:35 Luke 8:41, 49; Luke 13:14 Acts 18:8, 17), Hebrew ro'sh ha-keneseth (Sotah 7 7, 8). In some synagogues there were several rulers (Mark 5:22 Acts 13:15). They were most probably chosen from among the elders. It was the ruler's business to control the synagogue services, as for instance to decide who was to be called upon to read from the Law and the Prophets (Yoma' 7 1) and to preach (Acts 13:15; compare Luke 13:14); he had to look after the discussions, and generally to keep order.
(3) The Servant (or Servants).
Greek huperetes; Talmud chazzan (Luke 4:20; Yoma' 7 1; Sotah 7 7, 8). He had to see to the lighting of the synagogue and to keep the building clean. He it was who wielded the scourge when punishment had to be meted out to anyone in the synagogue (Matthew 10:17; Matthew 23:34 Mark 13:9 Acts 22:19; compare Makkoth 16). From Shabbath 1 3 it seems that the chazzan was also an elementary teacher.
(4) Delegate of the Congregation.
Hebrew sheliach tsibbur (Ro'sh ha-shanah 4 9; Berakhoth 5 5). This office was not permanent, but one was chosen at each meeting by the ruler to fill it, and he conducted the prayers. According to Meghillah 4 5, he who was asked to read the Scriptures was also expected to read the prayers. He had to be a man of good character.
(5) The Interpreter.
Hebrew methargeman. It was his duty to translate into Aramaic the passages of the Law and the Prophets which were read in Hebrew (Meghillah 3 3; compare 1 Corinthians 14:28). This also was probably not a permanent office, but was filled at each meeting by one chosen by the ruler.
(6) The Almoners.
(Dema'i 3 1; Kiddushin 4 5). Alms for the poor were collected in the synagogue (compare Matthew 6:2). According to Pe'ah 8 7, the collecting was to be done by at least two persons, and the distributing by at least three.
6. The Service:
(1) Recitation of the "Shema` ".
At least ten persons bad to be present for regular worship (Meghillah 4 3; Sanhedhrin 1 6). There were special services on Saturdays and feast days. In order to keep the synagogue services uniform with those of the temple, both were held at the same hours. The order of service was as follows: the recitation of the shema`, i.e. a confession of God's unity, consisting of the passages Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Deuteronomy 11:13-21;. Numbers 15:37-41 (Berakhoth 2 2; Tamidh 5 1). Before and after the recitation of these passages "blessings" were said in connection with the passages (Berakhoth 1 4). This formed a very important part of the liturgy. It was believed to have been ordered by Moses (compare Ant, IV, viii, 13).
The most important prayers were the Shemoneh `esreh, "Eighteen Eulogies," a cycle of eighteen prayers, also called "The Prayer" (Berakhoth 4 3; Ta`anith 2 2). Like the shema` they are very old.
The following is the first of the eighteen: "Blessed art Thou, the Lord our God, and the God of our fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob: the great, the mighty and the terrible God, the most high God Who showest mercy and kindness, Who createst all things, Who rememberest the pious deeds of the patriarchs, and wilt in love bring a redeemer to their children's children for Thy Name's sake; O King, Helper, Saviour and Shield! Blessed art Thou, O Lord, the Shield of Abraham."
The prayers of the delegate were met with a response of Amen from the congregation.
(3) Reading of the Law and the Prophets.
After prayers the parashah, i.e. the pericope from the Law for that Sabbath, was read, and the interpreter translated verse by verse into Aramaic (Meghillah 3 3). The whole Pentateuch was divided into 154 pericopes, so that in the course of 3 years it was read through in order. After the reading of the Law came the HaphTarah, the pericope from the Prophets for that Sabbath, which the interpreter did not necessarily translate verse by verse, but in paragraphs of 3 verses (Meghillah, loc. cit.).
(4) The Sermon.
After the reading from the Law and the Prophets followed the sermon, which was originally a caustical exposition of the Law, but which in process of time assumed a more devotional character. Anyone in the congregation might be asked by the ruler to preach, or might ask the ruler for permission to preach.
The following example of an old (lst century A.D.) rabbinic sermon, based on the words, "He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation" (Isaiah 61:10, a verse in the chapter from which Jesus took His text when addressing the synagogue of Nazareth), will serve as an illustration of contemporary Jewish preaching:
"Seven garments the Holy One-blessed be He!-has put on, and will put on from the time the world was created until the hour when He will punish the wicked Edom (i.e. Roman empire). When He created the world, He clothed Himself in honor and majesty, as it is said (Psalm 104:1): `Thou art clothed in honor and majesty.' Whenever He forgave the sins of Israel, He clothed Himself in white, for we read (Daniel 7:9): `His raiment was white as snow.' When He punishes the peoples of the world, He puts on the garments of vengeance, as it is said (Isaiah 59:17): `He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloke.' The sixth garment He will put on when the Messiah comes; then He will clothe Himself in a garment of righteousness, for it is said (same place): `He put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and an helmet of salvation upon His head.' The seventh garment He will put on when He punishes Edom; then He will clothe Himself in 'adhom, i.e. `red,' for it is said (Isaiah 63:2): `Wherefore art Thou red in Thine apparel?' But the garment which He will put upon the Messiah, this will shine afar, from one end of the earth to the other, for it is said (Isaiah 61:10): `As a bridegroom decketh himself with a garland.' And the Israelites will partake of His light, and will say:
`Blessed is the hour when the Messiah shall come!
Blessed the womb out of which He shall come!
Blessed His contemporaries who are eye-witnesses!
Blessed the eye that is honored with a sight of Him!
For the opening of His lips is blessing and peace;
His speech is a moving of the spirits;
The thoughts of His heart are confidence and cheerful-ness;
The speech of His tongue is pardon and forgiveness;
His prayer is the sweet incense of offerings;
His petitions are holiness and purity.
O how blessed is Israel, for whom such has been prepared!
For it is said (Psalm 31:19): "How great is Thy goodness, which thou hast laid up for them that fear thee" ' "
(Pesiqta', edition Buber).
(5) The Benediction.
After the sermon the benediction was pronounced (by a priest), and the congregation answered Amen (Berakhoth 5 4; Sotah 7 2, 3).
L. Zunz, Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Juden, 2nd edition; Herzfeld, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, III, 129-37, 183-226; Hausrath, Neutestamentliche Zeitgesch., 2d edition, 73-80; HJP, II, 357-86; GJV4, II; 497-544; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 5th edition, I, 431-50; Oesterly and Box, "The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue," Church and Synagogue, IX, number 2, April, 1907, p. 46; W. Bacher, article "Synagogue" in HDB; Strack, article "Synagogen," in RE, 3rd edition, XIX.
SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT
A college or assembly of learned men, originating with Ezra, to whom Jewish tradition assigns an important share in the formation of the Old Testament Canon, and many legal enactments (see CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT). One of its latest members is said to have been Simon the Just (circa 200 B.C.). The oldest notice of the Great Synagogue is in the tract of the Mishna, Pirqe 'Abhoth (circa 200 A.D.); this is supplemented by an often-quoted, passage in another tract of the Mishna, Babha' Bathra' (14b), on the Canon, and by later traditions. It tells against the reliabe of these traditions that they are late, and are mixed up with much that is self-evidently unhistorical, while no corroboration is found in Ezra or Nehemiah, in the Apocrypha, or in Josephus. On this account, since the exhaustive discussion by Kuenen on the subject (Over de Mannen der Groote Synagoge), most scholars have been disposed to throw over the tradition altogether, regarding it as a distorted remembrance of the great convocation described in Nehemiah 8-10 (so W. R. Smith, Driver, etc.; compare article by Selbie in HDB in support of total rejection). This probably is an excess of skepticism. The convocation in Nehemiah has no points of resemblance to the kind of assembly recalled in this tradition; and while fantastic details may be unreal, it is difficult to believe that declarations so circumstantial and definite have no foundation at all in actual history. The direct connection with Ezra may be discounted, though possibly-indeed it is likely-somebody associated with Ezra in his undeniable labors on the Canon may have furnished the germ from which the institution in question was developed (see the careful discussion in C. H. H. Wright, Ecclesiastes 1-10, and Excursus III, "The Men of the Great Synagogue").
For the rabbinical quotations and further important details, see C. Taylor's Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, 11 and 110 f.
RULER OF THE SYNAGOGUE
See RULER, 3, (1), (2).
SYNAGOGUE OF LIBERTINES
SYNAGOGUE OF SATAN
See SATAN, SYNAGOGUE OF.
Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Gr. sunagoge, i.e., "an assembly"), found only once in the Authorized Version of Psalm 74:8
, where the margin of Revised Version has "places of assembly," which is probably correct; for while the origin of synagogues is unknown, it may well be supposed that buildings or tents for the accommodation of worshippers may have existed in the land from an early time, and thus the system of synagogues would be gradually developed.
Some, however, are of opinion that it was specially during the Babylonian captivity that the system of synagogue worship, if not actually introduced, was at least reorganized on a systematic plan (Ezek. 8:1; 14:1). The exiles gathered together for the reading of the law and the prophets as they had opportunity, and after their return synagogues were established all over the land (Ezra 8:15; Nehemiah 8:2). In after years, when the Jews were dispersed abroad, wherever they went they erected synagogues and kept up the stated services of worship (Acts 9:20; 13:5; 17:1; 17:17; 18:4). The form and internal arrangements of the synagogue would greatly depend on the wealth of the Jews who erected it, and on the place where it was built. "Yet there are certain traditional pecularities which have doubtless united together by a common resemblance the Jewish synagogues of all ages and countries. The arrangements for the women's place in a separate gallery or behind a partition of lattice-work; the desk in the centre, where the reader, like Ezra in ancient days, from his `pulpit of wood,' may `open the book in the sight of all of people and read in the book of the law of God distinctly, and give the sense, and cause them to understand the reading' (Nehemiah 8:4, 8); the carefully closed ark on the side of the building nearest to Jerusalem, for the preservation of the rolls or manuscripts of the law; the seats all round the building, whence `the eyes of all them that are in the synagogue' may `be fastened' on him who speaks (Luke 4:20); the `chief seats' (Matthew 23:6) which were appropriated to the 'ruler' or `rulers' of the synagogue, according as its organization may have been more or less complete;", these were features common to all the synagogues.
Where perfected into a system, the services of the synagogue, which were at the same hours as those of the temple, consisted, (1) of prayer, which formed a kind of liturgy, there were in all eighteen prayers; (2) the reading of the Scriptures in certain definite portions; and (3) the exposition of the portions read. (See Luke 4:15, 22; Acts 13:14.)
The synagogue was also sometimes used as a court of judicature, in which the rulers presided (Matthew 10:17; Mark 5:22; Luke 12:11; 21:12; Acts 13:15; 22:19); also as public schools.
The establishment of synagogues wherever the Jews were found in sufficient numbers helped greatly to keep alive Israel's hope of the coming of the Messiah, and to prepare the way for the spread of the gospel in other lands. The worship of the Christian Church was afterwards modelled after that of the synagogue.
Christ and his disciples frequently taught in the synagogues (Matthew 13:54; Mark 6:2; John 18:20; Acts 13:5, 15, 44; 14:1; 17:2-4, 10, 17; 18:4, 26; 19:8).
To be "put out of the synagogue," a phrase used by John (9:22; 12:42; 16:2), means to be excommunicated.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
) A congregation or assembly of Jews met for the purpose of worship, or the performance of religious rites.
2. (n.) The building or place appropriated to the religious worship of the Jews.
3. (n.) The council of, probably, 120 members among the Jews, first appointed after the return from the Babylonian captivity; -- called also the Great Synagogue, and sometimes, though erroneously, the Sanhedrin.
4. (n.) A congregation in the early Christian church.
5. (n.) Any assembly of men.