Brown-Driver-Briggs כִּי conjunction that, for, when
. Probably from the same demonstrative basis found in here
, and in certain pronouns, as Aramaic דֵּךְ this
(WSG 110 f.
); perhaps also ultimately akin with that, in order that
, and then
, enclitic, like Latin nam
1 that (ὅτι, German dass):
a. prefixed to sentences depending on an active verb, and occupying to it the place of an accusative: so constantly, after verbs of seeing, as Genesis 1:10 וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי טוֺב and God saw that it was good, Genesis 3:6; Genesis 6:2,5; Genesis 12:14 #NAME? Genesis 14:14; Genesis 29:33, knowing Genesis 22:12; Genesis 24:14, telling Genesis 3:11; Genesis 12:18, repenting Genesis 6:6,7, swearing Genesis 22:16; Jeremiah 22:5, believing Exodus 4:5; Lamentations 4:12, remembering Psalm 78:35, forgetting Job 39:15; אָמַר = command (late; in early Hebrew the words said are quoted) Job 36:10,24 (זְכֹר in a command) Job 37:20 b 1 Chronicles 21:18 (contrast 2 Samuel 24:18) etc.; טוֺב כּי it is good that ... 2 Samuel 18:2 + (usually the infinitive with, as Genesis 2:18; see ibid.); Genesis 37:26 מַהבֶּֿצַע כִּי נַהֲרֹג what profit that we should slay (imperfect)...? Malachi 3:14 what proft כִּי שָׁמַרְנוּ that we have kept (perfect)...? Job 22:3 הַחֵפֶץ לְשַׁדַּי כִּי is it pleasure to Shaddai that...? after a pronoun, as Psalm 41:12 by this I know that thou hast pleasure in me, that my enemy cannot triumph over me, Psalm 42:5 these things will I remember...that (or how) I used to go, etc., Psalm 56:10 this I know that God is for me Job 13:16 (הוא). And with כִּי repeated pleonastic after an intervening clause 2 Samuel 19:7; Jeremiah 26:15 +; כִּי ֗֗֗ וְכִי Genesis 3:6; Genesis 29:12; Exodus 4:31; Joshua 2:9; Joshua 8:21; Joshua 10:1; 1 Samuel 31:7; 2 Samuel 5:12; 1 Kings 11:21; Jeremiah 40:7,11; לֵאמֹר ֗֗֗ וְכִי Genesis 45:26; Judges 10:10.
b. כִּי often introduces the direct narration (like , , and the Greek ὅτι recitativum, e.g. Luke 4:21), in which case it cannot be represented in English (except by inverted commas), Genesis 21:30; Genesis 29:33 and she said, ׳כִּי שׁמע י Yahweh hath heard, etc.; Exodus 3:12 = Judges 6:16 and he said, כִּי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּ֑ךְ I will be with thee, Joshua 2:24; 1 Samuel 2:16 (see Dr) 1 Samuel 10:19 and ye have said to him, כִּי מֶלָךְ תָּשִׂים עָלֵינוּ Thou shalt set a king over us, 2 Samuel 11:23; 1 Kings 1:13; 1 Kings 20:5; Ruth 1:10, compare Ruth 2:21 (but in reply to a question כִּי may = because, see below
3; and so also in sentences giving the explanation of a proper name, Genesis 26:22; Genesis 29:32 (but De surely: see below), Exodus 2:10 (compare Genesis 4:25; Genesis 41:51,52); in כִּי מָה, introducing an expostulation, 1 Samuel 29:8; 1 Kings 11:22; 2 Kings 8:13, it gives the reason for a suppressed 'Why do you say this?').
c. especially after an oath חַי אָ֫נִי, ׳חַי י etc., introducing the fact sworn to, Genesis 42:16 by the life of Pharaoh, כִּי מְרַגְּלִים אַתֶּם (I say) that ye are spies; but though Hebrew usage probably gave it an asseverative force, English idiom does not require it to be expressed: Numbers 14:22; 1 Samuel 20:3 as ׳י liveth, כִּי כְפֶשַׂע בֵּינִי וּבֵין הַמָּוֶת there is but a step between me and death! 1 Samuel 26:16; 1 Samuel 29:6; Isaiah 49:18 +; 1 Samuel 14:44 כֹּהיַֿעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה יוֺסִיף כִּי מוֺת תָּמוּת thus may God do and more also: thou shalt surely die! 2 Samuel 3:35; 1 Kings 2:23; Ruth 1:17 and elsewhere — Note that כִּי when thus used is often repeated after an intervening clause, in order that its force may be fully preserved: Genesis 22:16f.; 1 Samuel 14:39 כִּי מוֺת יָמוּת (אִםיֶֿשְׁנוֺ בְּיוֺנָתָן בְּנִי) כִּי ׳חַי י 1 Samuel 25:34; 2 Samuel 2:27 ׳כִּי אָז וג (לוּלֵא דִּבַּרְתָּ) כִּי, 2 Samuel 3:9; 2 Samuel 15:21 Qr 1 Kings 1:30; Jeremiah 22:24.
d. כִּי is used sometimes with advs. and interjs. to add force or distinctness to the affirmation which follows: (a) so especially in אַף כִּי (see אַף); הֲכִי is it that . . .? (as a neutral interrogative) 2 Samuel 9:1, (expecting a negative answer) Genesis 29:15 is it that thou art my brother, and shalt (therefore) serve me for nothing? Job 6:22 is it that I have said, Give unto me? expressing surprise Genesis 27:36 is it that he is called Jacob, and has (hence) supplanted me twice? 2 Samuel 23:19 an affirm. answer is required (which would imply הֲלֹא כִי): read probably with the "" 1 Chronicles 11:25 הִנּוֺ be-hold, he, etc.; אִםלֹֿא כִּי Deuteronomy 32:30 were it not that .. .; אָמְנָם כִּי Job 12:2 of a truth (is it) that ye are the people, etc.; אַךְ כִּי 1 Samuel 8:9; אֶפֶם כִּי Numbers 13:28 +; גַּם כִּי Ruth 2:21; הֲלֹא כִי 1 Samuel 10:1 (but see ᵐ5 Dr), 2 Samuel 13:28; הִנֵּה כִי Psalm 128:4; compare Psalm 118:10 כִּי אֲמִיַלם ׳בְּשֵׁם י in the name of ׳י (is it) that — or (I say) that — I will mow them down; Job 39:27 doth the vulture mount up at thy command, וְכִי יָרִים קִנּוֺ and (is it) that it (so) makes high its nest? Isaiah 36:19 have the gods of the nations delivered each his land etc.? . . . וְכִי הִצִּילוּ i.e. (Hi) and (is it) that they have delivered Samaria out of my hand? > (Ew§ 354 c De Di) and that they have delivered Samaria out of my hand! = how much less (אַף כִּי) have they, etc.! ("" 2 Kings 18:34 כִּי alone, perhaps conformed by error to 2 Kings 18:35; 2Chronicles 32:15 אַף כִּי, which however does not decide the sense of the original וְכִי). 1 Chronicles 29:14 וְכִי מִי read ומי or כי מי (b) in introducing the apodosis, especially in כִּי עַתָּה (chiefly after לוּלֵא) indeed then . . ., Genesis 31:42; Genesis 43:10 for unless we had tarried כִּי עַתָּה שַׁבְנוּ surely then we had returned twice, Numbers 22:33 (read לוּלֵי for אוּלַי); so 1 Samuel 14:30 ᵐ5 (after לוּא), and 1 Samuel 13:13 Hi We (לֻא for לֹא); after אִם Job 8:6 surely then he will awake over thee, etc. (But elsewhere כִּי עַתָּה is simply for now, Genesis 29:32; Job 7:21 +; or for then = for in that case, Exodus 9:15; Numbers 22:29; Job 3:13; Job 6:3 +). It is dubious whether כִּי אָז has the same sense: for 2 Samuel 2:27; 2 Samuel 19:7 the כִּי in כִּי אָז may be merely resumptive of the כִּי recitation preceding (see
a, c). Rare otherwise: Exodus 22:22 if thou afflict him כִּי אִםצָֿעֹק יִצְעַק 'tis that (= indeed), if he cries unto me, I will hear him, Isaiah 7:9 if ye believe not כִּי לֹא תֵאֵָמנוּ ׃ indeed ye will not be established.
e. there seem also to be other cases in which כִּי, standing alone, has an intensive force, introducing a statement with emphasis, yea, surely, certainly (German ja — a lighter particle than these English words): see in AV RV Exodus 18:11; Numbers 23:23; 1 Samuel 17:25; 1 Samuel 20:26; 2 Kings 23:22; Isaiah 32:13; Isaiah 60:9; Jeremiah 22:22; Jeremiah 31:19; Hosea 6:9; Hosea 8:6; Hosea 9:12; Hosea 10:3; Amos 3:7; Psalm 76:11; Psalm 77:12 (Ew Che), Proverbs 30:2 (but not if construed as RVm), Ecclesiastes 4:16; Ecclesiastes 7:7,20; Job 28:1 +; Lamentations 3:22 (ᵑ6 ᵑ7 Ew Th Öttli) the mercies of ׳י, surely they are not consumed (read probably תַמּוּ or תָֽמְמוּ for תמנו), Ruth 3:12 כִּי אָמְנָם yea, indeed. But it is doubtful whether כִּי has this force in all the passages for which scholars have had recourse to it, and whether in some it is not simply = for. DeProverbs 30:1 would restrict the usage to cases in which a suppressed clause may be understood.
f. that, expressing consecution, especially after a question implying surprise or deprecation: followed by perf., Genesis 20:9 what have I sinned against thee כִּי הֵבֵאתָ עָלַי that thou hast brought upon me? 1 Samuel 22:8; Isaiah 22:1 what aileth thee, that thou art gone up, etc.? Isaiah 22:16; Isaiah 36:5; Isaiah 52:5; Micah 4:9; Habakkuk 2:18; followed by participle Judges 14:3; 1 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 18:9 how have I sinned that thou art giving, etc.? 2 Kings 5:7; Ezekiel 24:19; usually followed by imperfect Exodus 3:11 who am I כִּי אֵלֵךְ that I should go, etc.? Exodus 16:7; Judges 8:6; Judges 9:28; 2 Kings 8:13; Isaiah 7:13; Isaiah 29:16 (also perfect), Psalm 8:5 what is man כִּי תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ? Job 3:12 or why the breasts כִּי אִינָָֽק ׃ that I should suck? Job 6:11 מַהכֹּֿחִי כִּי אִַיַחֵל, Job 7:12,17; Job 10:5f.; Job 13:25f.; Job 15:12f; Job 15:14; Job 16:3; Job 21:15 +; after a negative, Genesis 40:15 here also I have done nothing כִּי שָׂמוּ that they should have placed me in the dungeon, Psalm 44:19f. our heart has not turned backward, etc. כִּי דִכִּיתָנוּ that thou shouldst have crushed us, etc., Isaiah 43:22 not me hast thou called on, כִּי יָגַעְתָּ בִּי that thou shouldst have wearied thyself with me, Hosea 1:6 (see RV), Job 41:2; Ruth 1:12 I am too old to have an husband כִּי אָמַרְתִּי that I should have said, etc. (compare Ew§ 337 a; Dr§ 39 δ).
g. added to preps. כִּי converts them, like אֲשֶׁר, into conjs. ..., as יַעַן כִּי because that...: see below יַעַן, עַד, עַל, עֵקֶב, תַּחַת.
2. a. Of time, when, of the past וַיְהִי כִּי Genesis 6:1 (compare BuUrg. 6), Genesis 26:8; Genesis 27:1; 2 Samuel 6:13; 2 Samuel 7:1; 2 Samuel 19:26 + (כַּאֲשֶׁר and especially כְּ with infinitive, are more frequently); וְהָיָה כִּי (simple וְ) 1 Samuel 1:12; 1 Samuel 17:48; Joshua 22:7; Judges 2:18; Judges 12:5 והיה כי יאמרו and it would be, whenever (frequently) they said, Jeremiah 44:19 (participle), Hosea 11:1; Psalm 32:3 כי החרשׁתי when I was silent, Job 31:21,26,29; of present (usually with imperfect) as Exodus 18:16 כִּי יִהְיֶה לָהֶם דָּבָר when they have a matter, 1 Samuel 24:20; Isaiah 1:12; Isaiah 30:21; Jeremiah 14:12; Zechariah 7:5,6; Malachi 1:8; Psalm 49:19 and men praise thee כִּי תֵיטִיב לָ֑ךְ when thou doest well to thyself, Psalm 102:1; Psalm 127:5 +, with perfect Ezekiel 3:19-21; Ezekiel 33:9; Proverbs 11:15; Proverbs 23:22; especially of future, as Genesis 4:12 כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶתהָֿאֲדָמָה when thou shalt till the ground it shall not, etc., Genesis 24:41; Genesis 30:33; Genesis 31:49; Genesis 32:18; Exodus 7:9 when Pharaoh shall speak unto you, Deuteronomy 4:25; Deuteronomy 6:20 +; in phrase (׳תאֹמַר וג) וְכִי תאֹמְרוּ Leviticus 25:20; Deuteronomy 18:21; Isaiah 8:19; Isaiah 36:7; Jeremiah 13:22; and especially in ... וְהָיָה כִּי Genesis 12:12; Genesis 46:33; Deuteronomy 6:10; Deuteronomy 15:16; 1 Samuel 10:7; 1 Samuel 25:30; Isaiah 8:21; Isaiah 10:12 + often; with perfect Isaiah 16:12; 1 Chronicles 17:11 (altered from imperfect 2 Samuel 7:12); with participle (unusual) Numbers 33:51; Numbers 34:2; Deuteronomy 11:31; Deuteronomy 18:9.
b. elsewhere כִּי has a force approximating to if, though it usually represents a case as more likely to occur than אִם: — (mostly with imperfect) Genesis 38:16; Numbers 5:20; Numbers 10:32; Deuteronomy 6:25; Deuteronomy 7:17; Deuteronomy 28:2,13; 1 Samuel 20:13; 2 Samuel 19:8; 2 Kings 4:29; 2 Kings 18:22; Jeremiah 38:15; Proverbs 4:8; Job 7:13 (כי אמרתי when I say), Job 19:28; often in laws, as Exodus 21:14,33,35; Exodus 21:37; Exodus 22:4; Exodus 22:5 etc., Deuteronomy 13:13; Deuteronomy 14:24; Deuteronomy 15:7,12; Deuteronomy 17:2; Deuteronomy 18:6,21 etc.; sometimes, in particular, to state a principle broadly, after which special cases are introduced by אִם, as Exodus 21:2 when (כִּי) thou buyest a Hebrew servant, he shall serve thee six years, after which Exodus 21:3-5 follow four special cases with אִם if: so Exodus 21:7 (כי), Exodus 21:8-11 (אם); Exodus 21:18 (כי), Exodus 21:19 (אם); Exodus 21:20 (כי), Exodus 21:21 (אם); Exodus 21:22 f; Exodus 21:28-32; Leviticus 1:2 (כי), Leviticus 1:3; Leviticus 1:10 (אם) Leviticus 4:2,3,13,27,32; Leviticus 13:2ff. Numbers 30:3ff. +; though this distinction is not uniformly observed, contrast e.g. Exodus 21:5 with Deuteronomy 15:16; Numbers 5:19 and Numbers 5:20. — N.B. with כִּי = when or if, the subject is often prefixed for distinctness and emphasis: 1 Kings 8:37 רָעָב ׳כִּייִֿהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ דֶּבֶר כִּי יִהְיֶה וג, Isaiah 28:18; Micah 5:4 אַשּׁוּר כִּייָֿבאֹ בְאַרְצֵנוּ, Psalm 62:11; Ezekiel 3:19 (וְאַתָּה), Ezekiel 14:9,13; Ezekiel 18:5,18,21; Ezekiel 33:6 (compare Ezekiel 33:2); and especially in laws of P, as כִּי ֗֗֗ אָדָם Leviticus 1:2; Leviticus 13:2, ... נֶפֶשׁ כִּי Leviticus 2:1; Leviticus 4:2; Leviticus 5:1,4,15, similarly Leviticus 15:2,16,19,25; Leviticus 22:12,13,14 etc., rather differently Numbers 5:20.
c. when or if, with a concessive force, i.e. though: — (a) with imperfect Jeremiah 4:30 (3 t. in verse); Jeremiah 14:12; Jeremiah 49:16 כִּיתַֿגְבִּיהַּ כַּנֶּשֶׁר קִנֶּ֑ךָ though thou make high like the vulture thy nest, I will bring thee down thence, Jeremiah 51:53; Hosea 13:15; Zechariah 8:6; Psalm 37:24; Psalm 49:19f. though in his lifetime he bless himself ... he shall come, etc., perhaps also Jeremiah 46:23 Ew (but Hi Gf Ke for), Jeremiah 50:11 Ew Ke (Hi yea); and strengthened by גַּם, גַּם כִּי Isaiah 1:5; Psalm 23:4 (compare Dr§ 143); (b) with perf. (rare) Micah 7:8 כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָ֑מְתִּי though I have fallen, I rise, Nahum 1:10 (si vera 1.), Psalm 21:12 (Hi Ew Now), Psalm 119:88 (Ew De).
3 Because, since ὅτι —
a. Genesis 3:14 because thou hast done this, cursed art thou, etc., Genesis 3:17; Genesis 18:20; Genesis 17:20 the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah — because it is great ... (subject prefixed for emphasis: compare
2 N.B.) Isaiah 28:15; in answer to a question, Genesis 27:20; Exodus 1:19; Exodus 18:15; 2 Samuel 19:43 +. Enunciating the conditions under which a future action is conceived as possible (German indem) Leviticus 22:9; Deuteronomy 4:29 כי תדרשׁנו, Deuteronomy 12:20 (see Dr), Deuteronomy 12:25; Deuteronomy 12:28; Deuteronomy 13:19; Deuteronomy 14:24; Deuteronomy 16:15; Deuteronomy 19:6,9 +, 1 Kings 8:35 (compare 1 Kings 8:33 אֲשֶׁר), 1 Kings 8:36 כִּי תוֺרֵם, Proverbs 4:8b.
b. more commonly the causal sentence follows, as Genesis 2:3 and God blessed the seventh day ׳כִּי בוֺ שָׁבַת וג because on it he rested, etc., Genesis 4:25 etc., in which case it may often be rendered for, Genesis 2:5; Genesis 2:28; Genesis 3:20; Genesis 5:24; Genesis 6:7,12,13; Psalm 6:3 heal me כִּי נִבְהֲלוּ עֲצָמָ֑י for my bones are vexed, Psalm 10:14; Psalm 25:16; Psalm 27:10 + very often specifically after verbs expressive of mental emotions, as rejoicing Isaiah 14:29; Psalm 58:11, being angry Genesis 31:35; Genesis 45:5, fearing Genesis 43:18; Psalm 49:17 etc. Iron. 1 Kings 18:27 for he is a god etc. (4 t.); Proverbs 30:4; Job 38:5 כִּי תֵדָ֑ע for or since thou knowest. With subject prefixed Psalm 128:2. Repeated (with anacoluthon) Isaiah 49:19.
c. the causal relation expressed by כִּי is sometimes subtle, especially in poetry, and not apparent without careful study of a passage. Thus sometimes it justifies a statement or description by pointing to a pregnant fact which involves it, as Isaiah 3:8a Job 6:21 (ground of the comparison Job 6:15-20), Job 14:16 (For...: ground of the wishes expressed Job 14:13-15), Job 16:22 (ground of Job 16:20f.) Job 30:26 (For ...), or by pointing to a General truth which it exemplifies Job 5:6 (reason why complaining Job 5:2-5 is foolish), Job 15:34; Job 23:14; sometimes it is explicative, justifying a statement by unfolding the particulars which establish or exemplify it 2 Samuel 23:5a; Isaiah 1:30; Isaiah 5:7; Isaiah 7:8; Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 10:8-11; Isaiah 13:10 (development of Isaiah 13:9a); Isaiah 32:6 f. (developing the characters of the נָבָל and כִּילַי, and so explaining why they will no longer be esteemed Isaiah 32:5); Job 11:16ff. (explicit of Job 11:15b), Job 18:8 ff. (justifying Job 18:7), Job 22:26 ff. (justifying Job 22:25); elsewhere the cause is expressed indirectly or figuratively Isaiah 2:6 (reason why invitation Isaiah 2:5 is needed), Isaiah 5:10 (sterility of the soil the cause of the desolation Isaiah 5:9), Isaiah 18:5; Isaiah 28:8 (proof of the intoxication Isaiah 28:7), Isaiah 31:7 (reason for the exhortation Isaiah 31:6: the certainty that the folly of idolatry will soon be recognized), Job 7:21 (for soon it will be too late to pardon), Job 27:8-10 (Job wishes his enemy the lot of the wicked, because this is so hopeless); or כִּי relates not to the see which immediately precedes or follows, but to several, as Isaiah 7:16f. (Isaiah 7:17 specially the ground of the people being reduced to simple fare Isaiah 7:15), Isaiah 21:6ff. (ground of the statements Isaiah 21:1-5), Job 4:5 (ground of Job 4:2), Job 14:7-12 (Job 14:10-12 specially the ground for the appeal in Job 14:6), Job 23:10-13 (ground why God cannot be found Job 23:8f.), Psalm 73:21 (ground not of Psalm 73:20, but of the General train of thought Psalm 73:2); similarly Genesis 4:24; Deuteronomy 18:14; Jeremiah 30:11 the reason lies not in the words immediately after כִּי, but in the second part of the sentence; or, on the other hand, it may state the reason for a particular word, Isaiah 28:20 (justifying 'nought but terror' Isaiah 28:19), Job 23:17 (God's hostility Job 23:16 the cause of his misery, not the calamity as such). Sometimes also כִּי, in a poetic orrhetorical style, gives the reason for a thought not expressed but implied, especially the answer to a question; Isaiah 28:11 (the mockeries of Isaiah 28:10 have a meaning) 'for with men of strange lips, etc. he will speak unto this people,' who will retort the mockeries, charged with a new and terrible meaning, upon those who uttered them (Isaiah 28:13); = (no,) for Isaiah 28:28 (see RVm), Job 22:2b no, he that is wise is profitable to himself, Job 31:18; Job 39:14 (see Job 39:13b), Psalm 44:24 (he cannot do this, Psalm 44:23) for for thy sake are we killed, etc., Psalm 130:4 no, with thee is forgiveness; = (yes,) for Isaiah 49:25 (see the question Isaiah 49:24), Isaiah 66:8.
d. כִּי ֗֗֗ כִּי ἀσυνδέτως sometimes introduce the proximate and ultimate cause respectively, Genesis 3:19; Genesis 26:7; Genesis 43:32; Genesis 47:20; Exodus 23:33 for [else] thou wilt serve their gods, for it will be a snare to thee, Isaiah 2:6 (twice in verse); Isaiah 3:8 (twice in verse); Isaiah 6:5a, b; Isaiah 10:22f.; Job 6:3f.; Job 8:8,9 (twice in verse); Job 24:17 (twice in verse); Job 29:11f.; sometimes they introduce two co-ordinate causes (where we should insert and), Exodus 23:21,22; Isaiah 6:5b,c I am undone, because I am of unclean lips..., because mine eyes have seen ׳י of hosts, Isaiah 15:5 (twice in verse); Isaiah 15:6 (twice in verse); Isaiah 15:8,9; Zephaniah 3:8f.; Job 15:25,27; Job 20:19f.; Job 31:11f. But כִּי ֗֗֗ וְכִי also occurs, Genesis 33:11; Numbers 5:20 (if), Joshua 7:15; Judges 6:30; 1 Samuel 19:4; 1 Samuel 22:17; 1 Kings 2:26; Isaiah 65:16 +.
e. after a negative כִּי for becomes = but (German sondern): Genesis 17:15 thou shalt not call her name Sarai, כִּי שָׂרָה שְׁמָהּ for (= but) Sarah shall be her name, Genesis 24:3f.; Genesis 45:8; Exodus 1:19; Exodus 16:8 not against us are your murmurings, ׳כי עליֿ for (they are) against ׳י = but against ׳י, Deuteronomy 21:17; 1 Samuel 6:3 (אַל), 1 Samuel 27:1 (see Dr), 1 Kings 21:17; Isaiah 10:7; Isaiah 28:27; Isaiah 29:23; Isaiah 30:5; Psalm 44:8; Psalm 118:17 + often; so in לא כי nay, for = nay, but, as Genesis 18:15 לֹא כִּי צָחָֽקְתְּ nay, but thou didst laugh, Genesis 19:2; Genesis 42:12; Joshua 5:14; 1 Samuel 2:16 MSS ᵐ5 (see Dr), 1 Samuel 12:12; 2 Samuel 16:18; 2 Samuel 24:24; 1 Kings 2:30; 1 Kings 3:22; 1 Kings 11:22; Isaiah 30:16 nay, but we will flee upon horses.
Note. — כִּי is sometimes of difficult and uncertain interpretation, and in some of the passages quoted a different explanation is tenable. Authorities especially read the Hebrew differently, when the choice is between for and yea. E.g. Isaiah 8:23 Ges Ew§ 330 b doch (no, but); Hi Di for (taking Isaiah 8:22 as RVm); Ch surely: Isaiah 15:1 Ges Ew Hi Di surely; De for: Isaiah 39:8 Ges Hi De surely; Di for (explanation of טוֺב): Ezekiel 11:16 Hi Ke Co surely; Ew Sm because. — In Exodus 20:25 the tense of וַתְּחַלֲלֶהָ makes it probably that כֹּי is for (Dr§ 153). Job 22:29 is taken with least violence to usage (גַּאֲוָה) as Hi When they humble thee, and thou sayest (= complainest) Pride! he will save, etc. כִּי אִםֿ (the אִם always followed by makkeph, except Genesis 15:4; Numbers 35:33; Nehemiah 2:2, where כִּיאִֿם is read by the Mass.: FrMM 241) —
1 each particle retaining its independent force, and relating to a different clause:
a. that if Jeremiah 26:15; after an oath (כִּי not translated: see כִּי
1c) if 1 Samuel 14:39; Jeremiah 22:24, surely not (אִם 1b 2) 2 Samuel 3:35; 1 Samuel 25:34 (כִּי being resumptive of the כִּי before לוּלֵי: see כִּי 1c); Exodus 22:22 (in apodosis) indeed if . . . (see כִּי 1d).
b. for if Exodus 8:17; Exodus 9:2; Exodus 10:4; Deuteronomy 11:20 +, for though Isaiah 10:22; Jeremiah 37:20; Amos 5:22, but if Jeremiah 7:5.
2 (About 140 t.) the two particles being closely conjoined, and relating to the same clause —
a. limiting the preceding clause, except (after a negative, or an oath, or question, the equivalent of a negative) — the most usual term for expressing this idea: followed by verb Genesis 32:27 I will not let thee go; כִּי אִםבֵּֿרַכְתָּֽנִי literally but (כִּי
3e) if thou bless me (that is, I will let thee go), i.e., subordinating the second clause to the first, 'I will not let thee go, except thou bless me;' Leviticus 22:6 he shall not eat of the holy things כִּי אִםרָֿחַץ except he have washed his flesh, Isaiah 65:6; Amos 3:7; Ruth 3:18; Lamentations 5:21f. (Ew Näg Ke Che Öttli), turn thou us unto thee, etc., unless thou have utterly rejected us, (and) art very wroth with us (= Or hast thou utterly rejected us? etc. Ew Öttli); followed by a noun, except, but, Genesis 28:17 this is nothing ׳כִּי אִםבֵּֿית הָאֱ but the house of God, Genesis 32:9 he withholds from me nothing כִּי אִםאֿוֺתָךְ except thee, Leviticus 21:2; Numbers 14:30 (after אִם), Numbers 26:65 (compare Numbers 32:12 בִּלְתִּי), Joshua 14:4; 1 Samuel 30:17,22; 2 Samuel 12:3 אֵין כֹּל כִּי אִםֿ (so 2 Kings 4:2), 2 Kings 19:29; 1 Kings 17:1 (after אִם), 1 Kings 22:31; 2 Kings 5:15; 2 Kings 9:35; 2 Kings 13:7; Jeremiah 22:17; Jeremiah 44:14 +; after אַל, 2 Chronicles 23:6; followed by an adverb clause, Genesis 42:15; Numbers 35:33; 2 Samuel 3:13 (but כִּי אִם and לִפְנֵי are mutually exclusive: read probably with ᵐ5 כִּי אִםהֵֿבֵיאתָ); after an interrogative Isaiah 42:19 who is blind כִּי אִםעַֿבְדִּי but my servant ? (who is blind in comparison with him ?), Deuteronomy 10:12; Micah 6:8; Ecclesiastes 5:10; 2Chron 2:5.
b. the if being neglected, and treated as pleonastic (compare אִם
1c), so that the clause is no longer a limitation of the preceding clause but a contradiction of it: but rather, but (= a slightly strengthened כִּי), Genesis 15:4 this man shall not be thy heir; ׳כִּי אִםאֲֿשֶׁר וג but one that shall come forth from thy own bowels, he shall be thy heir (compare 1 Kings 8:19), 1Ki 32:29 thy name shall no more be called Jacob כִּי אִםיִֿשְׂרָאֵל but Israel (compare כִּי alone 1 Kings 17:15), 1Ki 47:18 we will not hide it from my lord, but the money . . . is all made over to, etc., Exodus 12:9 not boiled in water, but roast with fire, Deuteronomy 7:5; Deuteronomy 12:5; Deuteronomy 16:6; Joshua 23:8; 1 Samuel 2:15 he will not take of thee boiled flesh כִּי אִםחָֽֿי׃ but raw, 1 Samuel 8:19 לֹא כִּי אִםמֶֿלֶךְ יִהְיֶה עָלֵינוּ nay, but a king shall be over us (compare כי alone, 1 Samuel 10:19; 1 Samuel 12:12), 1 Samuel 21:5; 2 Samuel 5:6; 1 Kings 18:18; 2 Kings 10:23 (מֶּן), Isaiah 33:21; Isaiah 55:10,11; Isaiah 59:2; Jeremiah 3:10; Jeremiah 7:32; Jeremiah 9:23; Jeremiah 16:15; Jeremiah 20:3; Ezekiel 36:22; Ezekiel 44:10; Amos 8:11; Psalm 1:2; Psalm 1:4; Proverbs 23:17 (אַל) Psalm +; with the principal verb repeated (as Genesis 15:4; 1 Kings 8:19), Leviticus 21:14; Ezekiel 44:22; Numbers 10:30; 2 Kings 23:23; Jeremiah 39:12 Kt (Qr omit אִם), compare Jeremiah 7:23. Occasionally in colloquial language, the negative, it seems, is left to be understood: 1 Samuel 26:10 as ׳י liveth, (by no means,) כִּי אִם but ׳י shall smite him, 2 Samuel 13:33 Kt (by no means,) but Amnon alone is dead (Qr omits אִם). Followed by imperative Isaiah 65:18; Ezekiel 12:23; Jeremiah 39:12; 2Chronicles 25:8. Sometimes also, though rarely (and not certainly), כִּי אִם appears to have the force of only even without a previous negative: Genesis 40:14 כִּי אִםזְֿכַרְתָּנִי אִתְּךָ only have (?) me in remembrance with thyself (but read perhaps אַךְ for כִּי; see Dr§ 119 δ n., the use of a bare perfect, without לוּ, or even waw consecutive, to express a wish or command is unexampled), Numbers 24:22 כִּי אִםֿ יִהְיֶה לְבָעֵר קָֽיִן׃ only, nevertheless, the Kenite shall be for extermination (compare Di), Job 42:8 (De Di) כִּי אִםמָּֿנָיו אֶשָּׂא
c. after an oath כִּי אִם appears to = a strengthened כִּי (compare בִּלְתִּי אִם, אִם ׃עַד אִם
1c), introducing the fact sworn to (see כִּי 1c): 2 Kings 5:20 as ׳י liveth, כִּי אִםרַֿצְתִּי surely I will run (perfect of certitude) after him, etc., Jeremiah 51:14 (Ges Hi Gf RV) surley I will fill thee with men (namely, assailants), etc. (but Ew Ke Ch treat the particles as separate (כִּי as כִּי
1c): though I have filled thee with men —; i.e. increased thy population, — yet shall they — the assailants — lift up the shout against thee), 2 Samuel 15:21 Kt (Qr omits אִם); after an assever. particle Ruth 3:12 Kt וְעַתָּה כִּי אָמְנָם כִּי אִם גּוֺאֵל אָנֹכִי and now, yea indeed, surely I am thy kinsman (Qr omits אִם); the oath being understood, Judges 15:7 if ye do thus, כִּי אִםנִֿקַּמְתִּי surely (Ges hercle) I will avenge myself, 1 Samuel 21:6 כִּי אִםאִֿשָּׁה עֲצֻרָה לָנוּ of a truth women have been kept from us, etc., 1 Kings 20:6 surely tomorrow I will send, etc., Proverbs 23:18 (see De) surely there is a reward; perhaps also Job 42:8.
כִּי עַל כֵּן forasmuch as, a peculiar phrase found Genesis 18:5; Genesis 19:8; Genesis 33:10; Genesis 38:26; Numbers 10:31; Numbers 14:43; Judges 6:22; 2 Samuel 18:20 Qr (rightly), Jeremiah 29:28; Jeremiah 38:4 — literally for therefore, emphasizing the ground pleonastically (Ew§ 353 a ). The original force of the phrase is traceable in some of the passages in which it occurs, as Genesis 18:5 let me fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort your heart; כִּיעַֿלכֵּֿן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל עַבְדְּכֶם for therefore (that is, to partake of such hospitality) are ye come to your servant, Numbers 14:43 the Amalekite and the Canaanite are there, and ye will fall by the sword, כִּיעַֿלכֵּֿן שַׁבְתֶּם for therefore (to encounter such a fate) have ye turned back from ׳י etc.: but in process of time the distinct sense of its component parts was no doubt gradually obscured, and it thus came to be used conventionally, as a mere particle of causation, even where there was no preceding statement to which עַל כֵּן therefore could be explicitly referred. אֲשֶׁר עַל כֵּן appears to be used similarly (compare אֲשֶׁר
8c) Job 34:27.