Brown-Driver-Briggs תַּתְּנַי proper name, masculine Persian prefect in Syria
; — Ezra 5:3,6
; Ezra 6:6,13
, A Θαθθαναι
; ᵐ5L Τανθαναιος
; also 3 Esdr 6:3; 7:26 JosAnt. xi.
12,89, etc. (LagPsalt. Hieron.162 n.
; AS§135 n.
; MeyEntst. J. 32
assumes Old Persian * Thithnaya
, or *Thathnaia
); but Uštanni, Uštanu
, was prefect in Syria under Darius, according to contract tablets. See StrassmDarius 27, 82
; names probably identical; MeissnZAW xvii (1897), 191 f.
reads therefore ושׁתני
Hpt), compare Buhl GuEzr-Neh.63
, however, thinks תתני
Old Persian th¹sna
, Avestan s¹sna (teaching)
, and this transposed in New Babylonian Uštanu
ב, בּ, Bêth, 2nd letter; post Biblical Hebrew = numeral 2 (and so in margin of printed MT); ב֟ = 2000; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
preposition in (Moabite בּ, Syriac , Arabic , Ethiopic ) before tone-syllables in certain cases (Ges§ 102. 2) בָּ, with suffix בִּי; בְּךָ (Ex 7:29; 2 Samuel 22:30; Psalm 141:8 בְּכָה), in pause and feminine בָּךְ; בּוֺ (once, Jeremiah 17:24 Kt בֹּה), בָּהּ; בָּנוּ; בָּכֶם, [בָּכֶן]; בָּהֶם, בָּם [also בָּהֵ֫מָּה Exodus 30:4; Exodus 36:1; Habakkuk 1:16], בָּהֶן 1 Samuel 31:7; Isaiah 38:16; Ezekiel 42:14 [15 times בָּהֵן (FrMM 235), and thrice, Leviticus 5:22; Numbers 13:19; Jeremiah 5:17, בָּהֵ֫נָּה]. Preposition denoting properly in, Greek ἐν, but applied in many derived and figurative significations. The senses expressed by בְּ are grouped by the Rabbis in three classes, בֵּית הַכְּלִי Beth vasculi, בֵּית הַדִּיבִּוּק וְהַנְּגִיעָה Beth coniunctionis et viciniae, בֵּית הָעֵזֶר Beth auxilii; and the same arrangement may be followed here, though the limits between the three classes are not clearly defined, and they sometimes overlap one another.
1 strictly, of position in a place (which often is expressed more precisely by בְּקֶרֶב, בְּתוֺךְ), as בַּבַּיִת in the house, בָּעִיר in the city, בַּדּוּד in the pot, בָּאָרֶץ in the land, etc. constantly. Hebrew idiom also says בָּהָר in the mountain Exodus 24:18 etc., even in cases where we could hardly avoid saying on, as 1 Kings 11:7; 1 Kings 19:11: so בְּחֹרֵב Deuteronomy 1:16 and elsewhere; בְּראֹשׁ הָהָר Exodus 24:17; Psalm 72:16. Preceded by a verb of motion (especially עָבַר) בְּ = through, as Genesis 12:6 and Abram passed through בָּאָרֶץ in the land = passed through it, Genesis 13:17; 2 Samuel 24:2 +; in (= through) a gate, Isaiah 62:10; Jeremiah 17:19; Micah 2:13. Figurative to speak בְּאָזְנֵי in the ears of ...; to be good (or evil, etc.) בְּעֵינֵי in the eyes of ...
2 of presence in the midst of a multitude, among, Exodus 14:28 there was not left בָּהֶם among them even one, Leviticus 26:36; 2 Samuel 15:31 Ahitophel בַּקֹּשְׁרִים is among the conspirators, 2 Kings 18:5 בְּכֹל מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה. So בְּךָ in thee (of Israel, collective) Deuteronomy 7:14; Deuteronomy 15:4,7; Deuteronomy 18:10; Deuteronomy 23:11; Deuteronomy 28:54 (different from עִמָּ֑ח beside thee Leviticus 25:35). — Specifically
a. of an individual, implying eminency among: Joshua 14:15; Jeremiah 46:18 Tabor among the mountains, Jeremiah 49:15; Proverbs 30:30; Songs 1:8 הַיָּפָה בַנָּשִׁים the fair one (= the fairest) among women, Lamentations 1:1: compare Luke 1:42. On 1 Samuel 17:12 see Dr.
b. hence with some verbs, when the action refers to only a part of the object, as הִכָּהַ בְּ to smite among... i.e. to smite some of... (different from הִכָּה with accusative); הָרַג בְּ Psalm 78:31; נָשָׂא בְּ to bear in, i.e. to share in bearing, Numbers 11:17 and elsewhere; בָּנָה בְּ to build in or at Zechariah 6:15; Nehemiah 4:4; עָשָׂה בְּ Exodus 5:9; עָמֵל בְּ to labour on Jonah 4:10; אָכַל בְּ, שָׁתָה בְּ to eat or drink of Judges 13:16; Proverbs 9:5; חָלַק בְּ to give a share in Job 39:17.
c. specifying the parts of which a whole consists (especially in P) Genesis 7:21; Genesis 8:17; Genesis 9:10,16; Genesis 17:23; Exodus 12:19; Numbers 31:11,26; Hosea 4:3.
3 with reference to the limits enclosing a space, within: Exodus 20:10 בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ within thy gates, Isaiah 56:5 בְּחוֺמוֺתַי within my walls.
4 often pregn. with verbs of motion, when the movement to a place results in rest in it, into: after בָּא Genesis 19:8; Isaiah 19:23; נָתַן Genesis 27:17; שָׁלַח to send Leviticus 16:22; in among Joshua 23:7,12; 1 Kings 11:2. — Hosea 12:7 (an extreme case) שׁוּב בְּ to return (and rest) in thy God, 1 Samuel 16:3 (unless לַזָּבַ֑ח should be read, as 1 Samuel 16:7). — עַיִן בְּעַיִן (with) eye (looking) into eye Numbers 14:14; Isaiah 52:8; מָּנִים בְּפָנִים Deuteronomy 5:4; בְּ ׳עֵינֵי פְ the eyes of ... are upon, both in favourable (Deuteronomy 11:12; Psalm 101:6) and hostile (Amos 9:8; Job 7:8) sense.
5 applied to time, as Genesis 1:1 בְּרֵאשִׁית in the beginning; Genesis 2:2 בַּיּוֺם הַשְּׁבִיעִי on the seventh day; Judges 10:8 בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא in that year; & constantly.
6 of a state or condition, whether material or mental, in which an action takes place: so often, בְּשָׁלוֺם in peace Genesis 15:15; בַּצָּרָה in distress Psalm 91:15; הָלַךְ בְּתֻמּוֺ to walk in his integrity; Exodus 5:19 בְּרָע in evil case.
7 בְּ introduces the predicate, denoting it as that in which the subject consists, or in which it shews itself (the Beth essentiae, — common in Arabic, especially with a participle or adjective and in a negative sentence: Qor 2:79 and God (appears) not as one remiss; 2:7 and they are not believers [compare French en — en honnête homme]; see WAG ii. § 56 a): namely
a. a primary predicate, Exodus 18:4 the God of my fathers בְּעֶזְרִי was my help, Psalm 146:5; Hosea 13:9 (read כִּי מִי בְעֶזְֶרךָ׃ with ᵐ5 ᵑ6 Che and others); Psalm 68:5 בְּיָהּ שְׁמוֺ his name consists in Yah, Job 23:13; Job 37:10. With the predicate in the plural (as plural of majesty) Psalm 118:7 בְּעֹזְרָ֑י ׳י J. is my great helper, Psalm 54:6 (see Che), Judges 11:35.
b. a secondary predicate, Exodus 6:3 and I appeared unto them בְּאֵל שַׁדָּ֑י as God Almighty, Numbers 26:53 בְּנַחֲלָה as an inheritance, Numbers 34:2; Ezekiel 46:16; Ezekiel 47:14; Deuteronomy 10:22; Deuteronomy 26:14 I have not put away therefrom בְּטָמֵא as one unclean = while unclean, Deuteronomy 28:62; Isaiah 40:10 בְּחָזָק יָבוֺא he cometh as a strong one, Psalm 35:2 (where see De) and rise up as my help, Psalm 35:16, Psalm 39:7; Psalm 55:19; Proverbs 3:26; Job 36:32 (De).
c. a predicate as accusative, Isaiah 48:10 I have refined thee וְלֹא בְכָ֑סֶף but not as though silver, Ezekiel 20:41; Numbers 18:26; Numbers 36:2; Joshua 13:6,7; Joshua 23:4; Ezekiel 45:1; Ezekiel 47:22 (twice in verse) (read יַמִּלוּ) Ezekiel 48:29 (see ᵐ5 Co) all בְּנַחֲלָה (compare
b.), Psalm 78:55 & allotted it בְּחֶבֶל נַחֲלָה as a line of inheritance (i.e. as a measured inheritance). Isaiah 26:4 ׳כִּי בְּיָהּ יהוה צוּר עוֺלָמִים י is different — for in Yah there is a rock of ages (compare Qor 4:7; 4:47 there is sufficiency in God as a patron).
d. in comparisons, Psalm 37:20 consume away בֶּעָשָׁן in the form of, as, smoke Psalm 78:33; Psalm 102:4; Job 34:36; Job 36:14.
II. Denoting proximity —
1 at, by (not very common): 1 Samuel 29:1 בָּעַיִן by the spring; Ezekiel 10:15,20 בִּנְהַר כְּבָר by the river Chebar (Ezekiel 1:3 עַל).
2 on: Genesis 8:20; Numbers 23:2 בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ on the altar; Judges 8:21 on the necks of the camels; 1 Kings 2:5 and elsewhere בְּמָתְנָיו on his loins; Isaiah 59:17 a helmet בְּראֹשׁוֺ on his head.
3 often with verbs of touching, approaching, taking hold of, cleaving, etc., as אָחַז, דָּבֵק, חָשַׁק, נָגַע, נָגַשׁ, קָרַב, מָּגַּע, תָּמַךְ, תָּפַשׂ (see these words).
4 with words expressing or implying an act of hostility —
a. against: Genesis 16:12 יָדוֺ בַכֹּל וְיַד כֹּל בּוֺ his hand against all, and the hand of all against him; בּ ׳הָֽיְתָה יַד מְּ Deuteronomy 13:10; 1 Samuel 5:9; 1 Samuel 18:17 #NAME? verbs (q. v.) of fighting (נִלְחַם, רִיב), going up to invade (עָלָה), being angry (הִתְעַבֵּר, אָנַף, חָרָה אַף), sinning or acting treacherously (חָטָא, בָּגַד, מָרַד, מָרָה, מָעַל, מָּשַׁע, שִׁקֵּר, כִּזֵּב, כִּחֵשׁ), testifying (עָנָה, הֵעִיד), mocking (הִלְעִיג, הֵתֵל), feeling loathing (קוּץ), rebuking (גָּעַר: properly to protest loudly), speaking (דִּבֶּר: Numbers 12:8b), etc., & even (an extreme case) Hosea 7:14 יָסוּרוּ בִי they turn aside (so as to be) against me. In a weaker sense מַשְׁתִּין בַּקִּיר mingens ad parietem 1 Samuel 25:22 and elsewhere
b. down to, upon (super with accusative), especially in such phrases as דָּמָיו בּוֺ Leviticus 20:9 and elsewhere his blood be upon him; דָּמוֺ בְראֹשׁוֺ his blood be upon his head Joshua 2:19; ) בְּראֹשׁוֺ׳שׁוּב (הֵשִׁיב י Judges 8:57 (רָעָה), 1 Kings 2:33 (דָּם), 1 Kings 2:44 (רָעָה), Psalm 7:17 (עֲמָלוֺ); ׳בְּראֹשׁוֺ נָתַן דֶּרֶךְ מּ 1 Kings 8:32 & often in Ezekiel, as Ezekiel 9:10; Ezekiel 11:21.
III. 1. With —
a. of accompaniment: Numbers 20:20 בְּעַם כָּבֵד with much people, Joshua 22:8; Judges 11:34; 1 Kings 10:2; 2 Kings 5:9; Jeremiah 41:15; Exodus 21:22 and he shall give בִּפְלִלִים with arbitrators (arbitrators being employed), Isaiah 8:16 בְּלִמֻּדָֽי׃ with my disciples, i.e. having them present; Exodus 8:1; Exodus 8:13; Jeremiah 11:19 עֵץ בְּלַחְמוֺ a tree with its sap; 1 Kings 19:19 וְהוּא בִּשְׁנֵים הֶעָשָׂר and he with the 12th.
b. often of what one takes or brings with one: Genesis 32:11 בְּמַקְלִי with my staff I passed over Jordan, Judges 11:34; Judges 15:1; 1 Samuel 1:24; Isaiah 7:24; Micah 6:6 and elsewhere קִדֵּם בְּ to go to meet with; בָּא בְּ to come with Leviticus 16:3; Psalm 66:13; Psalm 71:16. (In Arabic this usage is developed more fully than in Hebrew, and literally to come with, literally to go away with, are used idiomatically in the sense of to bring, and to take away respectively: WAG ii. § 56 b.) Hence בְּאֵין, בְּאֶפֶס, בִּבְלִי, בְּלֹא = without.
c. of concomitant (or surrounding) conditions, as בְּחִמָּזוֺן with (or in) haste; בְּצֶדֶק with (or in) righteousness; בִּשְׁגָגָה in error; בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֺל שׁוֺפָר 2 Samuel 6:15; often in such phrases as בְּצִדְקָֽתְךָ Psalm 31:2 in thy righteousness; בְּחַסְדְּךָ in thy mercy Exodus 15:13; — בְּאָשְׁרִי with my happiness! = happy am I Genesis 30:13; Psalm 29:4 the voice of ׳י is בַּכֹּחַ with power = is powerful; Exodus 32:12 בְּרָעָה with evil purpose; Psalm 73:8 בְרָע in wickedness; Psalm 90:10 בִּגְבוּרֹת with strength.
2 of the instrument or means: as
a. בַּחֶרֶב with the sword Exodus 5:3 etc.; בְּרַגְלַיִם with the feet Isaiah 28:3; . . . בְּיַד by the hand of ... (see below יָד); to stone בְּאֶבֶן or בָּֽאֲבָנִים with stones Leviticus 20:2; Numbers 14:10 etc.; שָׁתָה בְּ to drink with a cup Genesis 44:5; Amos 6:6 (compare in Aramaic Daniel 5:2); to cry בְּגָרוֺן with the throat Isaiah 58:1; to burn בָּאֵשׁ in or with fire (often); to slay or to perish בָּרָעָב through hunger or בַּדֶּבֶר through pestilence Exodus 16:3; Jeremiah 21:9 + often (compare Job 27:15 בַּמָּוֶת יִקָּבֵ֑רוּ); to save with or by Judges 7:7; 1 Samuel 14:6.
b. idiomatic, with certain verbs, as שָׁחַק בְּ to play with Job 40:29; עָבַד בְּ to labour with a person (as with an instrument), i.e. to use him as a slave Exodus 1:14; Jeremiah 22:13; Jeremiah 27:7 and elsewhere; עָשָׂה בְּ Jeremiah 18:23; Nehemiah 9:24; Daniel 11:7; Esther 1:15; Esther 2:11; Esther 3:11; Esther 6:6; & perhaps דִּבֶּר בְּ (of God) to speak with one Numbers 12:2,8a and elsewhere (see Ew§ 217 f. (3); DrSm ii. 23, 2). Further בַּבַּעַל, הִתְנַבֵּא ביהוה to prophesy with or by ׳י or Baal, ׳י or Baal being the inspirer; שָׁאַל בְּ, דָּרַשׁ to inquire or ask by means of a god (or oracle).
c. ביהוה through ׳י (= by His aid) in many connections, as Psalm 18:30; Psalm 44:6; Psalm 56:5; Psalm 56:11; Psalm 60:14; Isaiah 26:13; Isaiah 45:25; Hosea 1:7; Zechariah 10:12; with passive verbs Deuteronomy 33:29; Isaiah 45:17 (to be saved): and even of the immediate cause Numbers 36:2 to be commanded ביהוה by ׳י, Genesis 9:6 בָּאָדָם by man shall his blood be shed (both unusual), Hosea 14:4.
d. allied is the use of בְּ in such phrases as to bless, swear, speak, prophesy, etc., בְּשֵׁם in the name of ... (i.e. the name being used or appealed to in the act) Deuteronomy 6:13; Jeremiah 11:21, etc. (so to swear ביהוה by ׳י Joshua 2:12 etc.,בִּימִינוֺ Isaiah 62:8; to bless בְּךָ with thee Genesis 48:20, to swear with me Psalm 102:9, i.e. using my name in oath, Jeremiah 29:22); almost = in the authority and power of 1 Samuel 17:45; 1 Samuel 25:5; 1 Kings 21:8; Micah 4:5; Zechariah 10:12; Psalm 20:6; Psalm 44:6; Psalm 89:25.
e. בַּמָּה or בַּמֶּה by means of what? how? Genesis 15:8; Judges 6:15; Judges 16:5,6,10; 1 Kings 22:21; Malachi 2:17. בְּזֹאת by means of this Genesis 42:15,33. Exodus 7:17; Numbers 16:28; with this = on this condition Genesis 34:15,22; 1 Samuel 11:2; Isaiah 27:9.
3 of cost or price (the Beth pretii), the price, whether given or received, being treated as the instrumental means by which the act is accomplished, with, for, at the cost of: thus regularly
a. with שָׂכַר hire Genesis 30:16, מָּדָה redeem Exodus 34:20, אֵרֵשׂ betroth 2 Samuel 3:14, קָנָה buy 2 Samuel 24:24; 1 Kings 2:23 בְּנַפְשׁוֺ at the cost of his life hath A. spoken this word, 2 Samuel 23:17 who went בְּנַפְשׂוֺתָם at peril of their lives, Proverbs 7:23; Lamentations 5:9; Joshua 6:26 בִּבְכֹרוֺ יְיַסְּדֶנָּה at the price of his firstborn shall he lay its foundations, 1 Chronicles 12:19 בְּרָאשֵׁינוּ to the jeopardy of our heads he will fall away, etc.
b. with מָכַר sell Deuteronomy 21:14; עָבַד serve Genesis 29:18,20; Hosea 12:13; הֵמִיר exchange Leviticus 27:10; Hosea 4:7 their glory I will exchange for ignominy, Psalm 106:20; נָתַן בְּנֶשֶׁךְ to give for interest Leviticus 25:37; Psalm 15:5; in other connections Genesis 23:9; Genesis 47:16f.; Isaiah 45:13; Lamentations 1:11; Cant 8:7; 8:11; Deuteronomy 19:21 נֶפֶשׁ בְּנֶפֶשׁ עַיִן בְּעַיִן life for life, eye for eye; Isaiah 2:22 בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא at what is he to be accounted? Isaiah 7:23 a thousand vines בְּאֶלֶף כָּ֑סֶף at a thousand (shekels of) silver. — Hence (perhaps) the idiomatic usages שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה year for year, one year like another, annually Deuteronomy 15:20 and elsewhere; יוֺם בְּיוֺם (late), כְּיוֺם בְּיוֺם 1 Samuel 18:10; כְּפַעַם בְּפַעַם (see יוֺם, מַּעַם); חֹדֶשׁ בְּחֹדֶשׁ 1 Chronicles 27:1.
4 rather peculiarly, in certain cases where the object of an action may be treated as the instrument by which it is accomplished: as הֵנַיעַ בְּראֹשׁ to shake with the head Jeremiah 18:6; Job 16:4 (as well as הֵנִיעַ ראֹשׁ Psalm 22:8); to open with the mouth Job 16:10, with the lips Psalm 22:8; to gnash with the teeth Job 16:9 (to gnash the teeth Psalm 35:16); to wink with the eye Proverbs 6:13 (to wink the eye, ib. Proverbs 10:10); נָתַן בְּקוֺל to utter with the voice Psalm 46:7; Psalm 68:34; Jeremiah 12:8 (but נָתַן קוֺל is more common); to stretch out with the hand Lamentations 1:17; הֵרִים בַּמַּטֶּה (unusual) Exodus 7:20. So קָרָא בְּשֵׁם to call with the name — in different senses, according to the context, namely, to proclaim Exodus 33:19; Exodus 34:5; Isaiah 44:5; Psalm 49:12; to invoke Genesis 4:26; Genesis 12:8; 1 Kings 18:24-26 Isaiah 12:4; to name honourably Isaiah 43:1; Isaiah 45:3. compare Ew§ 282 d Ges§ 119. 3 b R. WAG ii. § 56 b β DeJob 31:12; Proverbs 20:30.
5 with a causal force, through, on account of: Genesis 18:28 הֲתַשְׁחִית בַּחֲמִשָּׁה wilt thou destroy on account of five the whole city? Leviticus 26:39; Numbers 16:26; Deuteronomy 9:4,5; Deuteronomy 24:16 אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֺ יוּמָֽתוּ׃ they shall be put to death, each because of his own sin (compare Jeremiah 31:30; Ezekiel 3:18, see Ezekiel 18:17) 2 Samuel 3:27; 2 Samuel 14:7 (compare Jonah 1:14) Isaiah 7:4 ("" מִן) Isaiah 28:7 ("" מִן) Isaiah 50:1; Isaiah 53:5; Isaiah 57:17; Jeremiah 51:46; Psalm 5:8; Psalm 5:11; Psalm 6:8 ("" מִן) Psalm 31:10; Psalm 32:3; Psalm 42:10; Psalm 90:9; Psalm 94:23. So in בַּאֲשֶׁר, בִּגְלַל (see אֲשֶׁר, גָּלָל), & (sometimes) in בִּדְבַר at, through, the word of ....
6 of the material with which a work is wrought, both absolute עָשָׁה בַזָּהָב to work with gold Exodus 31:4; 1 Kings 7:14; and to make a thing with (in our idiom, of) gold Exodus 38:8; Ezekiel 7:20; 1 Kings 15:22 (בָּנָה). Without a verb Leviticus 13:52; 2Chronicles 9:18.
7 with for although, in spite of (compare German bei alle dem): Leviticus 26:27; Numbers 14:11 בְּכֹל הָאֹתוֺת in spite of all the signs that I have wrought, Deuteronomy 1:32; Isaiah 47:9; Psalm 27:3; especially in the phrase בְּכָלזֿאת for all this Isaiah 5:25; Isaiah 9:11; Isaiah 9:16; Isaiah 9:20; Isaiah 10:4; Psalm 78:32 and elsewhere (compare in Arabic Qor 9:25.)
8 of a standard of measurement or computation, with, by: Exodus 12:4 בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת by the computation of souls; Leviticus 5:25 and elsewhere בְּעֶרְכְּךָ by thy reckoning; Ezekiel 4:10; בְּמִסְמָּר by number Deuteronomy 25:2 +; . . . בְּמִסְמַּר by the number of ... Leviticus 25:15,50; Numbers 1:2, etc.; בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ Exodus 30:13 and elsewhere (in P); בָּאַמָּה often (see אַמָּה); Deuteronomy 3:11 בְּאַמַּת אִישׁ by the cubit of a man; 2 Samuel 14:26 בְּאֶבֶן הַמֶּלֶךְ. Of a model, Genesis 1:26 בְּצַלְמֵנוּ in our image, Genesis 5:1,3; Exodus 25:40; בְּדֶרֶךְ with the way (= in the manner) of ... Isaiah 10:24,26; Amos 4:10.
IV. בְּ is used also with certain classes of verbs, though the explanation of its use may be sometimes doubtful: namely
a. with verbs of taking refuge, trusting, relying, as הֶאֱמִין, בָּטַח, חָסָה, נִשְׁעַן.
b. with verbs of ruling, governing, restraining, as מָלַךְ, מָשַׁל, נָגַשׂ, עָצַר, רָדָה, שָׁלַט.
c. with verbs of rejoicing, feeling pleasure or satisfaction, etc., as גִּיל, עָלַץ, שׂוּשׂ, שָׂמֵחַ, חָפֵץ, רָצָה, שָׂבַע (but with this verb מִן is more common). [Probably a case of
d. with verbs expressive of sensible perception, to denote the pleasurable or attentive exercise of the faculty concerned, as שָׁמַע בְּ to listen to, הִבִּיט בְּ, רָאָה, חָזָה, to look upon, הֵרִיחַ בְּ to smell at (see these words).
e. occasionally also with verbs of speaking, thinking, mentioning, knowing, to denote the object of the action, as דִּבֶּר בְּ to speak about Deuteronomy 6:7; Psalm 87:3 and elsewhere (see below דִּבֶּר); הִלֵּל בְּ, הָגָה, שִׂיחַ Psalm 44:9; Psalm 63:7; Psalm 69:13; יָדַע Jeremiah 38:24; זָכַר once Jeremiah 3:16, הִזְכִּיר often; Psalm 71:6 בְּךָ תְהִלָּתִי of thee is my praise.
V. Followed by an infinitive with, בְּ forms a periphrasis for the gerund, though in English it is commonly to be rendered by a verb and conjunction, namely: —
1 as a temporal conjunction, as Genesis 2:4 בְּהִבָּֽרְאָם in their being created = when they were created, Genesis 4:8 בִּהְיוֺתָם in their being (= when they were) in the field; and constantly. Sometimes it has in appearance the force of after that, as Genesis 33:18; Exodus 3:12; Exodus 13:17; but as a rule this is really due to the action denoted by the infinitive being treated as extending over a period within which the action of the principal verb takes place: so especially in the phrase בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, even of events at the close of the 40 years, Deuteronomy 4:45; Deuteronomy 23:5; Joshua 5:4, the whole period being treated as that in which Egypt was left (compare 2 Kings 2:1, where the time included is future). Cases, however, occur in which this explanation will hardly apply, as Deuteronomy 27:4; Deuteronomy 24:12.
2 as a causal conjunction (compare above
III. 5), as Genesis 19:16 ׳בְּחֶמְלַת י עָלָיו through J.'s having compassion upon him, Exodus 16:7; Exodus 33:16; Exodus 34:29; Deuteronomy 1:27 אֹתָנוּ ׳בְּשִׂנְאַת י through J.'s hating us, etc. (Deuteronomy 9:28 similarly מִן), 1 Kings 18:18 (= in that ye have ...) Ezekiel 9:8; Ezekiel 43:8; Ezekiel 44:7; 2Chronicles 28:6.
3 as a concessive conjunction, when = though: Isaiah 1:15; Psalm 46:3 בְּהָמִיר אָ֑רֶץ though the earth do change.
Note. — Exodus 10:12 בָּאַרְבֶּה can only be rendered 'with the locusts,' the locusts being conceived as implicit in Moses' uplifted hand: but probably לָאַרְבֶּה should be read. Thrice in late Hebrew בְּ is used peculiarly: 1 Chronicles 7:23 for with misfortune was it in his house (בְּרָעָה chosen for the purpose of explaining בְּרִיעָה); 1 Chronicles 9:33 עֲלֵיהֶם בַּמְּלָאכָה it devolved upon them with the work; Ezra 3:3 for with terror (was it) upon them from the peoples of the countries (the sentence without a verb as often in Chronicles: DrIntr. 504 f.): compare Ezra 8:34. compare Ew§ 295 f.
ג, גּ, Gîmel, third letter; in post Biblical Hebrew = numeral 3 (and so margin of printed MT); ג֟ = 3000; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
גֵּא see below גאה. below
ד, דּ, Daleth, fourth letter; in modern Hebrew numeral 4; ד֟ = 4000; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
ה, He, fifth letter; = numeral 5 in post-Biblical Hebrew; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
הַּ , הַ, הָ, הֶ (on the use of these different forms, see the Grammars: e.g. Ges§ 35),
definite article, the (so Moabite, Phoenician (Schröd§ 62-4), Liµyan (Northwest Arabia) ha (DHMEpigr. Denkm. 4. 13. 58 ff.); not Assyrian Aramaic or Ethiopic: Arabic , of which, before dentals, sibilants, and liquids, the l is written but not pronounced, thus pronounced 'ash-shamsu = Hebrew הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ) — in General the use of the article in Hebrew is analogous to its use in Greek or German: but naturally there are applications peculiar to Hebrew (compare with what follows Ges§ 126 Ew§ 277): —
1 joined with substantives:
a. to mark a definite concrete object, as Genesis 1:1 the heavens and the earth, הַמֶּלֶךְ the king, etc. Never, however (as in Greek e.g. ὁ Πλάτων), before true proper names, though it is used with certain terms, chiefly geographical, of which the original appellative sense has not been lost, as הַבַּעַל 'Baal,' literally 'the lord,' in plural הַבְּעָלִים i.e. the various local Baals, הַשָּׂטָן the Adversary Job 1:6ff. (as a proper name שָׂטָן, 'Satan,' only 1 Chronicles 21:1); הַלְּבָנוֺן (but not הַחֶרְמוֺן), הַיַּרְדֵּן (but not הָאַרְנֹן), הַכַּרְמֶל, הַשָּׁרוֺן the Sharon, הַשְּׁפֵלָה the (Judaean) lowland, הַכִּכָּר, הַמִּישׁוֺר the (Moabite) table-land, הָעֲרָבָה, הָעַי '`Ai,' הַגִּבְעָה 'Gibeah,' Judges 20:5ff., הַגָּלִיל 'Galilee,' הַגִּלְגָּל, הַגִּלְבֹּעַ, הַבָּשָׁן, הַגִּלְעָד (often), הַשִּׁטִּים, הַמִּצְמָּה, הָרָמָה, הַיְשִׁימוֺן, הָעֹפֶל, הַמִּסְגָּה.
b. with an adjective to denote one who exhibits a quality κατ’ ἐξοχήν, i.e. to express the comparative or superlative degree: so often, as Genesis 1:16 המאור הגדל the greater light, המאור הקטן the lesser light, Genesis 27:1 בנו הגדול = his elder son, Genesis 48:14 הצעיר the younger, Genesis 42:13 הַקָּטֹן the little one, i.e. the youngest, (of Joseph's brethren), Leviticus 21:10 הַגָּדוֺל מֵאֶחָיו the chiefest of his brethren, Numbers 35:25 + הכהן הגדול the chief priest, ׳הצעיר ב the least among Judges 6:15, הצעירה מן the least of 1 Samuel 9:21, ׳הַיָּפָה ב the fairest among Songs 1:8; 2 Kings 10:3; Proverbs 30:30, compare Job 14:15.
c. with nouns which are not definite in themselves, but acquire their definition from the context, or from the manner in which they are introduced: thus (α) in the standing phrases הַיּוֺם to-day, Genesis 4:14; Genesis 21:26 + often; הַלַּיְלָה to-night, Genesis 19:5; Genesis 30:15 +, once 1 Samuel 15:16 last night; so הַשָּׁנָה this year, 2 Kings 19:29; Jeremiah 28:16; הַמַּעַם this time, Genesis 18:32 +. (β) הַנָּהָר the river (κατ’ ἐξοχήν), i.e. the Euphrates; Exodus 2:15 the well, the well namely of the district, Joshua 8:11 the valley, 1 Samuel 17:3; 1 Samuel 19:10 the wall, 1 Samuel 19:13 the bed, 1 Samuel 20:21 הַנַּעַר the lad (whom Jonathan would naturally take with him), 1 Samuel 20:34 the table. Hence occas. where a suffix would define the noun more precisely, as הַחֲמוֺר 2 Samuel 19:27 + = my ass, Judges 3:20; 1 Samuel 1:9 הַכִּסֵּא = his seat, Judges 4:15; 1 Kings 22:35; 2 Kings 10:15 + הַמֶּרְכָּבָה, 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 20:33 הַחֲנִית.
d. it is a peculiarity of Hebrew thought to conceive an object as defined by its being taken for a particular purpose, and thus by a kind of prolepsis to prefix the article to the noun denoting it: 1 Samuel 10:1 and Samuel took אֶתמַּֿךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן literally the cruse of oil, not, however, a cruse which had been defined previously, but one rendered definiteby being now taken; in English idiom 'a cruse of oil,' 1 Samuel 10:25 בַּסֵּפֶר literally in the scroll or book, the one, namely taken for the purpose, i.e. in a scroll (so Exodus 17:14; Numbers 5:23; Job 19:23), Job 21:10 בַּשִּׂמְלָה, Judges 4:18 וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָה, Judges 4:19; Judges 7:13 הָאֹהֶל a tent, Judges 8:25; Judges 9:48 אֶתהַֿקַּרְדֻּמֹּת hatchets, Judges 20:16 every one able to sling בָּאֶבֶן אֶלהַֿשַּׂעֲרָה with a stone at a hair, 1 Samuel 6:8 בָּאַרְגָּז (unless indeed the אַרְגָּז was an understood appendage in every cart), Numbers 11:27 הַנַּעַר, a young man, Numbers 13:23 בַּמּוֺט on a pole, Joshua 2:15 בַּחֶבֶל with a cord, 2 Samuel 17:17 השׁפחה a girl (compare Dr1Samuel 1:4; 19:13). Sometimes it is uncertain whether an article is to be referred to c or
d: e.g. 1 Samuel 2:13 his prong or a prong, 2 Samuel 18:9 his mule or a mule, etc.
e. with nouns that denote objects or classes of objects that are known to all, as הַצּאֹן, הַזָּהָב, הַמַּיִם; Genesis 13:2 Abram was very rich בַּמִּקְנֶה בַּכֶּסֶף וּבַזָּהָב, Exodus 31:4 לַעֲשׂוֺת בַּזָּהָב וּבַכֶּסֶף, Deuteronomy 14:26 and thou shalt lay out the money בַּבָּקָר וּבַצּאֹן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר, 2 Kings 9:30 וַתָּשֶׂם בַּמּוּךְ עֵינֶיהָ, in French 'elle mit du fard à ses yeux.' It is, however, remarkable that this usage depends mostly on the punctuation, הַכֶּסֶף, הַיַּיִן, הַלֶּחֶם etc. (except as applied to denote definite quantities of gold, wine, etc., as Joshua 6:24) being far less common than כֶּסֶף, יַיִן etc., but בַּכֶּסֶף, לַכֶּסֶף etc. being much more frequently than בְּכֶסֶף, לְכֶסֶף etc.: for instances in which the article forms part of the consonantal text, see Genesis 6:20; Genesis 7:8 + העוף and הבהמה, Deuteronomy 8:3 הַלָּחֶם, 1 Kings 5:8; 1 Kings 5:13; Isaiah 28:7 הַיַּיִן and הַשֵּׁכָר, Isaiah 60:17; Ezekiel 15:4,7 הָאֵשׁ, Habakkuk 2:5; Proverbs 20:1; Psalm 65:14 הַצּאֹן, Songs 1:11; Ecclesiastes 7:12. compare below,
f. in comparisons, the object compared being, as a rule, not an individual as such, but one exhibiting the characteristics of a class: Isaiah 1:18 כַּשָּׁנִים, כַּתּוֺלָע like scarlet, like crimson (both meant Generally), Isaiah 5:24 כַּמַּק יִהְיֶה, Isaiah 5:28 כַּצַּר and כַּסּוּפָה, Isaiah 10:14 כַּקֵּן, Isaiah 13:8 כַּיּוֺלֵדָה (as always with this word, e.g. Isaiah 42:14; Psalm 48:7), Psalm 11:7 כַּבָּקָר; + often (The usage is not, however, quite uniform, at least according to the punctuation: there occurs e.g. כְּקַשׁ Job 41:21; Isaiah 47:14; כְּאַרְיֵה Psalm 7:3 and elsewhere: and we find both כַּלָּבִיא) Isaiah 5:29 and כְּלָבִיא Hosea 13:8; כָּאֲרִי Isaiah 38:13 and כַּאֲרִי Numbers 24:9; כַּגִּבּוֺר Isaiah 42:13 and כְּגבור Job 16:14; etc.) Similarly Genesis 19:28 כְּקִיטֹר הַכִּבְשָׁן as the smoke of a furnace, Numbers 11:8,12 כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶתהַֿיֹּנֵק, Deuteronomy 28:29 (הָעִוֵּר), Judges 8:18b כְּתֹאַר בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, Judges 14:6 כְּשַׁסַּע הַגְּדִי like (a lion's) rending a kid, Judges 16:9; 1 Kings 14:15; Zechariah 12:10 כְּ מִסְמֵּד עַל הַיָּחִיד as mourning over an only child, Zechariah 13:9 +. Where, however, the standard of comparison is not the class in General, but only a particular part of it, defined by a special epithet (whether adjective or verb), the article is naturally omitted: thus כַּמֹּץ like chaff (in General) Isaiah 41:15, but כְּמֹץ עֹבֵר like chaff passing away Isaiah 29:5; כַּצֵּל Job 14:2, but כְּצֵל נָטוּי Psalm 102:12; כַּקַּשׁ Isaiah 40:24, but כְּקַשׁ נִדָּף Isaiah 41:2; כָּאַיָּל Isaiah 35:6, but, ׳כְּאַיָּל תַּעֲרֹג על וג like a hind (that) longeth for streams of water Psalm 42:2; כָּאֵשׁ Isaiah 9:17, but כְּאֵשׁ תבער יער like fire (that) kindleth a wood Psalm 83:15; כֶעָשָׁן Isaiah 51:6, but כְּעָשָׁן מֵאֲרֻבָּה like smoke from a chimney Hosea 13:3: so Isaiah 62:1b Job 9:26; Job 11:16 כְּמַיִם עָֽבְרוּ like waters (that) have passed by, etc.; Deuteronomy 32:2 a כַּמָּטָר, כַּטַּל, but Deuteronomy 32:2 b כִּשְׂעִירִים עֲלֵידֶֿשֶׁא, כִּרְבִיבִים עֲלֵיעֵֿשֶׂב. Where the article is found, although a rel. clause follows (as Psalm 1:4; Psalm 49:13; Isaiah 61:10), this is probably to be regarded not as limiting the class of object compared, but as describing it.
g. prefixed to generic nouns (in the singular) it designates the class, i.e. it imparts to the noun a collective force, as Exodus 1:22 כָּלהַֿבֵּן all (literally the whole of) the sons, כָּלהַֿבַּת all the daughters, Leviticus 17:8,10 מִןהַֿגֵּר of the strangers, who sojourn in their midst, Numbers 21:7 הַגנָּחָשׁ the serpents; Genesis 14:13; Ezekiel 24:26; Ezekiel 33:21 הַמָּלִיט those who escaped; Joshua 6:7 + הֶחָלוּץ, v Joshua 9:13 הַמְאַסֵּף; Joshua 8:19 הָאוֺרֵב; 1 Samuel 13:17 הַמַּשְׁחִית; Micah 2:13; Isaiah 6:4 הַקּוֺרֵא the choir of criers; 1 Samuel 24:14 הַקַּדְמֹנִי the ancients; Ecclesiastes 7:26 אֶתהַֿאִשָּׁה woman, and often with Gentile names, as הַיְבוּסִי the Jebusites, הַכְּרֵתִי וְהַמְּלֵתִי 2 Samuel 8:18 and elsewhere, הַדָּנִי Judges 18:1 etc., הַלֵּוִי the Levites, Numbers 3:20, 18:23; Malachi 2:8; Psalm 135:20 +.
h. with nouns denoting abstract ideas, especially the names of moral qualities (compare Greek ἡ δίκη, French la justice), chiefly in two cases — (α) where the article is recognizable in the consonantal text, exceptionally, when some emphasis or definiteness is intended, as Deuteronomy 7:9 שׁומר הברית והחסד; החסד הזה 2 Samuel 2:5; 1 Kings 3:6; את החסד והרחמים Jeremiah 16:5 (contr. Zechariah 7:9); הצדק Isaiah 1:26; Isaiah 61:3; Ecclesiastes 3:16; הַצְּדָקָה Isaiah 32:17 (twice in verse) (contrast Isaiah 32:16) Daniel 9:7 (emphatic); הַדַּעַת Hosea 4:6; הָאֱמֶת Genesis 32:11 (followed by אֲשֶׁר), Isaiah 59:15 (contrast Isaiah 59:14) Zechariah 8:3,19; הָאֱמוּנָה Isaiah 11:5b (contr. va) Jeremiah 7:28; הַחָכְמָה Job 28:12,20; הַחַיִּים Genesis 2:9 +; הָאַהֲבָה Songs 2:7; Songs 3:5; Songs 8:4,7; הַשֶּׁקֶר Jeremiah 7:4,8; Jeremiah 23:26; הַמָּוֶת Isaiah 25:8; Ruth 1:17 +; הָרֶשַׁע Psalm 125:3; Ecclesiastes 3:16; הָרִשְׁעָה Zechariah 5:8; הַחשֶׁךְ Isaiah 60:2; Ecclesiastes 2:13; see also Deuteronomy 30:15,19 (Jeremiah 21:8), 1 Kings 7:14; Jeremiah 32:19; Malachi 2:5 החיים והשׁלום, Psalm 123:4; Psalm 130:4; Daniel 9:9; 1 Chronicles 29:11; 2Chronicles 1:12; Proverbs 31:30; Ecclesiastes 2:18,17; Ecclesiastes 7:12,19; Ecclesiastes 10:6; Ecclesiastes 11:10: but in all such cases חֶסֶד, צֶדֶק, אֱמֶת, etc. are far more common. (β) where the article depends on the punctuation, after prepositions, especially בְּ, but with much irregularity, as בַּחֶסֶד Isaiah 16:5; Proverbs 20:28 (but ׳בְּח Hosea 2:21; Proverbs 16:6), בַּצֶּדֶק Proverbs 25:5 (elsewhere always ׳בִּצְדָקָה ׃בְּצ also always); בֶּאֱמֶת and בֶּאֱמוּנָה always; בַּשֶּׁקֶר Isaiah 28:15 (but "" כָּזָב, not הַכָּזָב) Jeremiah 5:31; Jeremiah 13:25; Jeremiah 20:6; Jeremiah 23:14 (בְּשֶׁקֶר Jeremiah 3:10; Jeremiah 29:9); בַּשָּׁלוֺם Psalm 29:11; Job 15:21 (elsewhere בְּשָׁלוֺם); Zechariah 12:4 to smite בַּשִּׁגָּעוֺן וּבַעִוָּרוֺן (but Deuteronomy 28:28 בְּשׁגעון וּבְעורון), compare Genesis 19:11; Deuteronomy 28:22; to enter with one בַּמִּשְׁמָּט Job 9:32; Job 22:4 (but בְּמשׁפט Psalm 143:2), contrast also Proverbs 18:5; with Proverbs 24:23; לַמִּשְׁמָּט Isaiah 59:11; Psalm 9:8 (but ׳לְמ Isaiah 5:7; Psalm 122:5); Proverbs 2:2; Proverbs 7:4 לַחָכְמָה, (but never הַחכמה in Proverbs 1-9, or indeed in the whole book); Proverbs 2:3; Proverbs 7:4 לַבִּינָה, Job 39:17 בַּבִּינָה (but never הַבִּינָה); Proverbs 2:2,3לַתְּבוּנָה (but הַתְּבוּנָה only 1 Kings 7:14 emphatic); to perish בַּצָּמָא Judges 15:18 +; Isaiah 29:21 בַּתֹּהוּ, Isaiah 32:19 בַּשִּׁמְּלָה תִּשְׁמַּל הָעִיר German in die Niedrigkeit sinkt die Stadt, Isaiah 45:16 together they go בַכְּלִמָּה (in die Schmach), Isaiah 46:2 בַּשְּׁבִי into captivity, Isaiah 47:5 בֹּאִי בַחשֶׁךְ (so always: never בְחשׁך). The living language may have used the article more readily after a preposition, where it did not lengthen the word by an entire syll.; still the disparity of usage between α and β makes it not improbable that the article in β is in many cases not original but due to the punctuators.
i. to mark the vocative: 1 Samuel 17:55 חֵינֿפשׁך הַמֶּלֶךְ as thy soul liveth, O king, I do not know, 1 Samuel 17:58 בן מי אתה הַנַּעַר Whose son art thou, lad ? 2 Samuel 14:4 Help, O king ! 1 Kings 18:26 הַבַּעַל עֲנֵנוּ, 2 Kings 9:5 אֵלֶיךָ הַשָּׂר, Isaiah 42:18 הֵַחרְשִׁים שְׁמָ֑עוּ, Jeremiah 2:31 ׳הַדּֿוֺר אַתֶּם רְאוּ וג, Ezekiel 37:4 הָעֲצָמוֺת הַיְּבֵשׁוֺת O dry bones, Malachi 3:9 הַגּוֺי כֻּלּוֺ (Dr§ 198 Obs. 2).
N.B. In poetry, the article is frequently dispensed with before words which would naturally take it in prose: thus Psalm 2:2; Psalm 2:8; Psalm 2:10 & often אֶרֶץ; Psalm 8:9; Psalm 18:10; Psalm 33:6 + שָׁמַיִם; (rarely in prose, Genesis 1:8; Genesis 2:4; 1 Kings 8:35); 1 Kings 21:2; 1Ki 45:14; 1Ki 45:16; 1Ki 61:7 and elsewhere מֶלֶךְ; 1Ki 66:6; 1Ki 72:8 + יָם; 1Ki 59:7; 1Ki 59:15 עִיר; Judges 5:2; Psalm 18:44 עָם etc.; Psalm 9:6; Psalm 9:17 & often רָשָׁע; Isaiah 1:2,6,21; Isaiah 3:10,11; Isaiah 11:6,7,8.
2 With adjectives, participles, and demonstrative pronouns (הוא, היא, המה, הם, זה, זאת, אלה): namely
a. (so regularly) when the substantive qualified by these words is defined by it likewise, as המלך הגדול = ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ μέγας, Genesis 2:12 הארץ ההוא, Genesis 20:1 הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, Joshua 2:3 האנשׁים הבאים אליך = οἱ ἄνδρες οἱ ἐλθόντες πρὸς σέ, Genesis 13:5; Genesis 16:13; Genesis 24:65; Genesis 32:21; Judges 6:28; Isaiah 65:3,4,5; Isaiah 66:24; Psalm 31:9. So also with adjectives & participles, if the substantive be defined by a suffix (as Deuteronomy 4:37 בְּכֹחוֺ הַגָּדֹל, 1 Samuel 8:14 זֵיתֵיכֶם הַטֹּבוֺת); and with a pronoun, if it be defined by a Genitive (as Deuteronomy 29:20; 1 Samuel 14:29; 1 Samuel 15:14; 2 Kings 6:32 בֶןהַֿמְּרַצֵּחַ הַזֶּה this son of a murderer), but not if it be defined by a suffix, as Exodus 10:1 אֹתֹתַי אֵלֶּה (not אתתי הָאֵלָּה), Joshua 2:14 דְבָרֵנוּ זֶה this our word (not הַזֶּה ׳ד): see Dr§ 209 Obs. Similarly when the article with the participle has a resumptive force, Psalm 33:15 (Psalm 14, he looketh forth from the place, &c.), הַיֹּצֵר יַחַד לִבָּם he that formeth, etc., Psalm 19:11 הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב which (Psalm 10 b) are more desirable than gold, Psalm 49:7. (:6 b the iniquity of my aggressors surroundeth me), הַבֹּטְחִים who trust in their riches, etc., Genesis 49:21; Isaiah 46:6; Isaiah 51:20; Job 6:16 + (see Dr§ 135. 7).
b. (rare) when the substantive qualified by the adjective or participle was felt to be sufficiently definite for its own article to be dispensed with, as sometimes with the word day Genesis 1:31 יום השׁשׁי, Genesis 2:3 יום השׁביעי, Exodus 12:15,18; Exodus 20:10 (= Deuteronomy 5:14) Leviticus 19:6; Leviticus 22:27: so with מָנוֺא entrance Jeremiah 38:14, שַׁעַר Zechariah 14:10; חָצֵר court 1 Kings 7:8,12; Ezekiel 40:28 and elsewhere; also in certain phrases (peculiar to P) where the substantive is defined by כל, as Genesis 1:21 כָּלנֶֿפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה all living souls, Genesis 1:28 כָּלחַֿיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת all living things that creep, etc., Genesis 7:21; Genesis 9:10; Leviticus 11:10,46; further in isolated cases, hardly reducible to rule, Leviticus 24:10; 1 Samuel 12:23 דֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֺבָה, 1 Samuel 16:23 רוּחַ הָרָעָה, 2 Samuel 12:4 לְאישׁ העשׁיר Jeremiah 6:20; Jeremiah 17:2; Zechariah 4:7; Psalm 104:18; Ezra 10:9 חֹדֶשׁ הַתְּשִׁיעִי (quite exceptional in OT). (With pronouns this use is so rare that, where it occurs, it is dubious if the text be sound: 1 Samuel 17:12,17; Jeremiah 40:3 Kt Micah 7:11). And with the participle: 1 Samuel 25:10 רַבִּים עֲבָדִים הַמִּתְמָּֽרְצִים many are the slaves who break away etc., Isaiah 7:20; Jeremiah 27:3; Jeremiah 46:16 = Jeremiah 50:16 חֶרֶב הַיּוֺנָה the oppressing sword, Ezekiel 2:3 (but ᵐ5 Co omit הגוים), Ezekiel 14:22; Ezekiel 32:22,24; Psalm 62:4; Proverbs 26:18; Judges 21:19 (very anomalous, read probably לַמְּסִלָּה). This usage is somewhat more frequently in the later parts of OT; and in Post-Biblical Hebrew it is very General (e.g. יֵצֶד הָרַע the evil inclination): see further Dr§ 209.
c. with the participle, where the participle with the article forms really the subject: Genesis 2:11 הוּא הַסּוֺבֵב not 'it was encompassing,' but 'it is that which encompassed,' Genesis 45:12 מִּי הַמְדַבֵּר my mouth is that which speaketh, Deuteronomy 3:21 עֵינֶיךָ הָראֹוֺת thine eyes were those which saw, Deuteronomy 4:3; Deuteronomy 8:18 ὅτι οὗτος ἐστιν ὁ διδοὺς σοί, Isaiah 14:27; Isaiah 66:9 (see Dr§ 135. 7).
3 The article is prefixed exceptionally — mostly in the latest Hebrew — with the force of a relative to the verb: Joshua 10:24 הֶהָֽלְכוּא אִתּוֺ that went with him, Ezekiel 26:17, הָעִיר הַהֻ֫לָּלָה, 1 Chronicles 26:28 וְכֹל הַהִקְדִּישׁ שְׁמוּאֵל and all that Samuel had dedicated, 1 Chronicles 29:8,17; 2Chronicles 1:4 ַבּהֵכִין in (the place) that he had prepared, 2 Chronicles 29:36; Ezra 8:25; Ezra 10:14,17. According to the punctuation, it occurs similarly elsewhere, as Genesis 18:21 הַשָבּאָה (so Genesis 46:27; Job 2:11), Job 21:3 הַנּוֺלַדלֿוֺ, 1 Kings 11:9 & Daniel 8:1 הַנִּרְאָה, Isaiah 51:10 הַשָּׂ֨מָה֨, Isaiah 56:3 הַנִּלְוָה, Ruth 1:22; Ruth 2:6; Ruth 4:3 (all הַשָּׁ֫בָה): but in all these passages, the change of a point, or even sometimes of an accent, would restore the normal participial construction (as הַבָּשָאה, הַנּוֺלָד לוֺ compare Genesis 48:5, הַנִּרְאֶה), which is, no doubt, what was intended by the original writers, and is recognised elsewhere by the Masora, e.g. Genesis 12:7; Genesis 35:1 הַנִּרְאֶה, Genesis 46:26 & Ruth 4:11 הַבָּאָ֣ה (compare Ew§ 331 b Ges138, 3 b). Once, still more anomalously, before a preposition 1 Samuel 9:24 וְהֶעָלֶיהָ (as though καὶ τὸ ἐπ’ αὐτῆς): but read probably וְהָאַלְיָה and the fat tail, see Dr. (In Arabic also occurs, though very rarely, as a relative: WAG i. § CG 117). — On the anomalous use of the article with a word in the stative construct, see Grammars, as Ew§ 290 d, Ges§ 127 R. 4, also Dr§ 190-1.
הֲ, הַ, הַּ , הֶ (on the different forms, see Ges§ 100. 4: on Deuteronomy 32:6, see הַל),
interrogative particle (Biblical Aramaic and ᵑ7 הֲ, Arabic ), prefixed, as a rule, to the first word of a sentence (or clause).
1 in direct questions:
a. as a simple interrogative, where the answer expected is uncertain, Exodus 2:7 הַאֵלֵךְ shall I go and call thee a nurse ? 1 Samuel 23:11 הֲיַסְגִּרֻנִי will the men of Keilah deliver me into his hand ? הֲיֵרֵד שָׁאוּל will Saul come down ? Job 1:8; and frequently.
b. often in questions, expressed in a tone of surprise, or put rhetorically, to which a negative answer is expected (= Latin num ?): Genesis 4:9 הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי Amos I my brother's keeper ? Genesis 18:17 shall I hide from Abraham that which I am about to do ? Genesis 30:2; Genesis 50:19; Numbers 11:23 a Deuteronomy 4:33 הֲשָׁמַע עַם֗֗֗ Did a people ever hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the fire, . . . and live ? Deuteronomy 20:19 (read with ᵐ5 ᵑ7 ᵑ6 ᵑ9 Ew Ke Di etc. הֶאָדָם for הָאָדָם), 2 Samuel 7:5 ַהאַתָּה תִּבְנֶהלִּֿי בַיִת (altered in 1 Chronicles 17:4 to the negative ׳לֹא אַתָּה תִּבְנֶה וג), 2 Kings 6:22 הַאֲשֶׁר שָׁבִיתָ ֗֗֗ those whom thou hast taken captive with thy sword and with thy bow, wilt thou smite ? Isaiah 28:24; Isaiah 36:12; a Isaiah 57:6; Isaiah 58:5; Jeremiah 15:12; Jeremiah 16:20; Amos 5:25; Psalm 50:13; Job 8:11; Job 15:7,8,11; Job 38:12,16,17,22 etc.; before an infinitive absolute (Ew§ 328 a) Jeremiah 7:9; Job 40:2 and probably Micah 2:7 (read הֶאָמוֺר: ). After a protasis, הִנֵההֲ֗֗֗ Numbers 22:38; 2 Kings 7:2,19; Jeremiah 32:27; Ezekiel 17:10; after הֵן Jeremiah 3:1; Haggai 2:12: compare after זוּלַי Genesis 24:5; after אִם Job 14:14 אִם יָמוּת גֶּבֶר הֲיִחְיֶה a man dieth, shall he live ? Occasionally, one or more words precede הֲ (in the same clause) for special emphasis: 2 Samuel 7:7; Job 34:31 כִּי אֶלאֵֿל הֶאָמַר for to God did one ever say. . .? Nehemiah 13:27; Jeremiah 22:15 (הֲלֹא), compare Jeremiah 23:26.
c. it is used in questions which, by seeming to make doubtful what cannot be denied, have the force of an impassioned or indignant affirmation: Genesis 27:36 ('dubitantis speciem prae se fert Esavus, ut eo acerbius affirmet,' Maurer, cited by Ges), 1 Samuel 2:27 הֲנִגְלהֹ נִגְלֵיתִי וגי Did I reveal myself to the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt ? etc. (i.e. of course I did, although thy sons, by their actions, appear to belie it), 1 Kings 16:31 (expressing astonishment), 1 Kings 21:19 הֲרָצַחְתָּ וְגַםיָֿרָ֑שְׁתָּ Hast thou slain, and also taken possession ? Jeremiah 31:20; Job 20:4; Job 41:1 (compare Hi); also Genesis 16:13, and the phrases הַרְּאִיתֶם do ye see ? 1 Samuel 10:24; 2 Kings 6:32; הֲרָאִיתָ dost thou see ? 1 Kings 20:13; Ezekiel 8:12,15,17 and elsewhere
d. in disjunctive questions, the first question being introduced usually by הֲ, the second by אִם or (more rarely) וְאִם: see examples under אִם
2 (p. 50). The disjunctive question may express a real alternative (as Joshua 5:13), or (as especially in poetry) the same thought may be repeated in a different form, in two parallel clauses (e.g. Isaiah 10:15): in the latter case, the answer No is usually expected. Only very rarely is the second question introduced by הֲ Judges 14:15 (where, however, הֲלֹם ought no doubt to be read, with MSS., ᵑ7 Be and others, for הֲלֹא), or אוֺ Judges 18:19; Job 16:3; Job 38:28,31.
2 In indirect interrogation, whether (German ob. . . .?) —
a. singly, after verbs of seeing Genesis 8:8 לִרְאוֺת הֲ to see whether, Genesis 18:21; Exodus 4:18; Songs 6:11, telling Genesis 43:6, trying Deuteronomy 13:4, knowing Judges 3:4; Ecclesiastes 3:21 (read הַעֹלָה and הֲיֹרֶדֶת: see De or Wr on the passage.)
b. disjunctively, — usually הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, Numbers 13:18 end, Numbers 13:19a (and see the land) הֲטוֺבָה הִיא אִם רָעָה ֗֗֗ whether it be good or bad, Numbers 13:19 b; Numbers 13:20; Numbers 13:20; הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם לֹא Genesis 24:21; Genesis 27:21; Genesis 37:32; Exodus 16:4 that I may try it (the people) הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֺרָתִי אִם לֹא whether it will walk in my law or not, Numbers 11:23; Deuteronomy 8:2; Judges 2:22; הֲ ֗֗֗ הֲ Numbers 13:18 (by side of הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם); הֲ ֗֗֗ אוֺ Ecclesiastes 2:19; Ecclesiastes 11:6. It is prefixed to other particles, as הַאִם, הַאַף, הֲגַם, הֲכִי, הֲלֹא: see אִם, אַף,etc. p. 49, etc.
ו, Waw, sixth letter; in modern Hebrew = numeral 6; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
וְ, וּ, וָ
demonstrative adverb and
conjunction so, then, and (Phoenician, Moabite, Aramaic ו; Arabic ; Ethiopic Assyrian u DlW (but between verbs the usually connective is the enclitic ma KAT2. 508, Dl§§ 82, 150). The use in Hebrew shews that original וְ was not a merely copulative conjunction, but that it possessed a demonstrative force (compare Dr§ 122), which is often perceptible as such, though in other cases, from its being applied to denote mere juxtaposition or connection [compare Greek τε, and Latin tum .... tum = 'both .... and,' both properly demonstratives: Assyrian ma has also a demonstrative force, Dl§ 79], it is less palpable) — וְ before shwa' mobile or a labial is vocalized וּ; often before a tone-syll., when the word itself has a disj. accent, וָ (as וַָמתִּי׃ Genesis 19:19; וָמֵ֖תוּ Genesis 33:13; וָמֵ֑ת Genesis 44:9; וָחָֽיָה׃ Exodus 1:16; וָיָ֑מָּה Joshua 15:46; וָ֔לֹ֕א 2 Samuel 13:26; וָאָ֖רֶץ Isaiah 26:19; וָקָ֔מוּ Isaiah 49:7; וָחָֽתָּה׃ Jeremiah 48:1; וָרָֹע Psalm 10:15); especially when it forms with the preceding word a pair, whether of parallel or opposed ideas (as כֹּה וָכֹה Exodus 2:12, מִי וָמִ֖י Exodus 10:8, אֶבֶן וָאָ֑בֶן Deuteronomy 25:13; דֹּר וָדֹ֑ר Deuteronomy 32:7 +; תֹּהוּ וָבֹ֔הוּ Genesis 1:2, בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶ֛שׂ Genesis 1:24, טוֺב וָרָֽע׃ Genesis 2:19, נָע וָנָ֖ד Genesis 4:12, וְקַיִץ וָחֹ֛רֶף וְיוֺם וָלָ֖יְלָה Genesis 8:22, קַח וֵָלךְ׃ Genesis 12:19, שָׁמַיִם וָאָֽרֶץ׃ Genesis 14:19, אֲנִי וָאָ֑תָּה Genesis 31:44, אֲנִי וָה֑וּא Genesis 41:11, עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ Exodus 32:27, אַתָּה וָהֵ֛ם Numbers 16:16, אֱלֹהִים וָמֶ֑לָךְ 1 Kings 21:13, נִין וָנֶ֖כֶד Isaiah 14:22, שֹׁד וָשֶׁ֖בֶר Isaiah 59:7; and often: see more fully Bö§ 600); occasionally also with a conjunctive accent (as וָשַחי לְעֹלָֽם׃ Genesis 3:22 compare Leviticus 18:5, וָמַ֣תְנוּ שָׁם 2 Kings 7:4, וָאָ֣רֶץ חֲדָשָׁ֑ה Isaiah 65:17; Proverbs 25:3, שֹׁ֖ד וָשֶשׁבֶר גָּדוֺל׃ Jeremiah 48:3, compare Jeremiah 32:29). — וְ is used very freely and widely in Hebrew, but also with much delicacy, to express relations and shades of meaning which Western languages would usually indicate by distinct particles. But in Hebrew particles such as אוֺ, אָז, אַךְ, אָכֵן, אוּלָם, בַּעֲבוּר, לְמַעַן, לָכֵן, etc., were reserved for cases in which special emphasis or distinctness was desired: their frequent use was felt instinctively to be inconsistent with the lightness and grace of movement which the Hebrew ear loved; and thus in AV, RV, words like or, then, but, notwithstanding, howbeit, so, thus, therefore, that, constantly appear, where the Hebrew has simply וְ.
1 And, connecting both words (see above), and sentences (Genesis 1:5 ׳וְלַחשֶׁךְ קָרָא וג). When three, four, or more words follow, the conjunction may connect them all, as Genesis 7:21; Genesis 10:2 (6 t.) Genesis 24:35 (7 t.) Joshua 7:24 (10 t.) 2 Samuel 17:28f.: often however it is prefixed only to the last, as Genesis 5:32; Genesis 10:1; Deuteronomy 18:10 etc.; occas. even it connects only the first two, 1 Kings 8:47; Isaiah 1:13; Psalm 45:9; Job 42:9. Remarkably, however, וְ as a mere conjunction is, as a rule, not in classical Hebrew attached directly to verbs (especially in the perfect), the construction with וְ consecutive (see
2) being (as in Moabite) preferred: thus יָצָא וַיִּבֶן is said, not יָצָא וּבָנָה. Exceptions in classical Hebrew are (a) sometimes where synonyms are coupled, as Numbers 23:19 אָמַר ֗֗֗ וְדִבֶּר, Deuteronomy 2:30; Judges 5:26; 1 Samuel 12:2; Isaiah 1:2 גדּלתי ורוממתי Isaiah 2:11; Isaiah 5:14; Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 19:6; Isaiah 29:20; (b) isolated cases, difficult to reduce to rule (perhaps sometimes due to textual error), as Genesis 28:6; Genesis 38:5; Judges 3:23; Judges 7:13; Judges 16:18; 1 Samuel 1:12; 1 Samuel 3:13; 1 Samuel 4:19; 1 Samuel 5:7; 1 Samuel 10:9; 1 Samuel 17:38,48; 1 Samuel 25:20 and elsewhere (in other passages, apparently similar, the perfect and וְ has a frequent. force (see 2), as Genesis 37:3; Exodus 36:29f.; Numbers 10:17f. Numbers 21:15,20; 1 Samuel 2:22; 1 Samuel 16:14; 1 Samuel 17:34f. (see Dr) 1 Samuel 27:9; 2 Samuel 16:13; 2 Samuel 17:17, perhaps also Genesis 15:6; Genesis 21:25; Genesis 34:5). In later parts of OT, probably through Aramaic influence, the perfect with simple וְ occurs more frequently: so especially in Ecclesiastes, where it is all but universal (e.g. Genesis 2:11,12,13,15 etc.). With the imperfect, the simple וְ is not so unidiomatic, even in classical Hebrew (compare 3); see Genesis 1:9,26; Genesis 9:27; Genesis 17:2; Genesis 22:17; Genesis 27:29; Exodus 23:8 (frequently) Exodus 24:7; Numbers 14:12; Deuteronomy 17:13; Deuteronomy 30:12,13; Joshua 3:13; Joshua 7:3; Judges 7:3; Judges 13:8; Isaiah 5:29; Isaiah 14:10; often also in Jeremiah, Isa2, Job, Psalms, e.g. Isaiah 40:30; Isaiah 41:20 (Dr§ 116: contrast Isaiah 28:13). See more fully Dr§ 130-4 Ges§ 112. 6. Special senses: —
a. it sometimes = and specially, Genesis 3:16; 1 Kings 11:1 many strange women, and specially the daughter of Pharaoh, Isaiah 1:1 Judah and (= and particularly) Jerusalem, Isaiah 2:1; Isaiah 9:7; Psalm 18:1.
b. and in particular ('und zwar'), and that (explicative), Genesis 4:4; Judges 7:22; 1 Samuel 17:40 וּבַיַּלְקוּט, 1 Samuel 28:3 in Ramah, and that in his city (unusual: text suspicious), 2 Samuel 13:20 וְשֹׁמֵמָה and that desolate, Isaiah 57:11 I have been silent וּמֵעוֺלָם and that from of old, Isaiah 32:7; Jeremiah 15:13; Amos 3:11 (si vera lectio), Amos 4:10; Zechariah 9:9b Malachi 1:11; Psalm 68:10; Proverbs 3:12; Lamentations 3:26; Ecclesiastes 8:2; Daniel 1:3; Daniel 8:10; Daniel 9:25,27; Nehemiah 8:13; 1 Chronicles 9:27; 2Chronicles 8:13; 29:27 (but' even' for ו, before ל and infinitive, e.g. in Isaiah 44:28; Jeremiah 17:10; Jeremiah 19:12, is wrong; see Ew§ 351 c, Dr§ 206).
c. sometimes it introduces an idea which so exceeds or adds to what has preceded, that it is nearly equivalent to also, 1 Samuel 25:43; 1 Kings 2:22 ask also the kingdom for him; unusually Hosea 8:6 כי מישׂראל והוא for of Israel is it also, Ecclesiastes 5:6 והבלים (see De) 2 Chronicles 27:5 (but see ᵐ5). Or it may be rendered yea: so especially in the ascending numerations 3-4 Amos 1:3,6,9,11,13; Amos 2:1,4,6; Proverbs 30:18,21,29,6-7 Proverbs 6:16; Job 5:19, 7-8 Micah 5:4 — the first number being aggravated, or augmented, by a higher. In one idiom וּגְבוּל, occurring in geographic descriptions, it is used peculiarly, seemingly = at the same time: Numbers 34:6 and as for the western border, וְהָיָה לָכֶם הַיָּם הַגָּדוֺל וּגְבוּל the great sea shall be to you also (German 'zugleich') a border, Deuteronomy 3:16 תּוֺךְ הַנַּחַל וּגְבוּל the middle of the stream being at the same time the border, Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 13:23,27; Joshua 15:12,47 (but these, except Numbers 34:6, might be cases of 5c γ).
d. it connects alternative cases, so that it = or: Exodus 20:10,17; Exodus 21:16 he that stealeth a man וּמְכָרוֺ וְנִמְצָא בְיָדוֺ and selleth him, and (= or if) he be found in his hand, Exodus 21:17; Leviticus 21:14; Leviticus 22:23,24; Proverbs 29:9 (Fl Ew RV: whether . . . or) Job 31:13,16,26, etc.
e. it connects contrasted ideas, where in our idiom the contrast would be expressed explicitly by but; in such cases prominence is usually given to the contrasted idea by its being placed immediately after the conjunction: Genesis 2:17 but of the tree of the knowledge . . . thou shalt not eat, Genesis 4:2,5; Genesis 6:8; Genesis 17:21; Genesis 31:10 etc., 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Kings 10:7; 1 Kings 11:32,34; 1 Kings 15:14; Proverbs 10:1,2,3,4 + often; even after לֹא (where כִּי or כִּי אִם might be expected), as Genesis 42:10; Exodus 21:18; Leviticus 26:45; Deuteronomy 11:11; Judges 19:12; 1 Kings 3:11.
f. it introduces a contrasted idea in such a way as to suggest a question, especially before a pronoun, Judges 14:16 I told it not to my father or my mother, וְלָךְ אַגִּיד and shall I told it unto thee? 2 Samuel 11:11; Jeremiah 25:29 וְאַתֶּם הִנָּקֵה תִנָּקוּ and shall ye be guiltless? Jeremiah 45:5; Ezekiel 20:31; Ezekiel 33:25b Jonah 4:11. So the וְ consecutive and perfect (see 2a), Exodus 5:5 וְהִשְׁבַּתֶּם and will ye make them rest from their burdens? Numbers 16:10 וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם and seek ye the priesthood also? 1 Samuel 25:11; Isaiah 66:9; Psalm 50:21 and shall I keep silence? Job 32:16 (compare Dr§ 119 γ).
g. attaching a fresh subj. (or object) to a clause already grammatically complete, it = and also, Genesis 2:9b Numbers 16:2,18 and they stood at the entrance of the tent of meeting, ומשׁה ואהרן and Moses and Aaron (stood also), Numbers 16:27; Exodus 35:22; Judges 6:5; Genesis 1:16; b Genesis 12:17; Genesis 44:2; Genesis 46:15; Exodus 29:3; Jeremiah 32:29 (compare DrSm. i. 6, 11, & p. 293): when the idea thus attached is subordinate, or not logically embraced in the principal predicate, it approximates to the Arabic or 'waw of association' (followed by an accusative: WAG ii. § 37), Esther 4:16 אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם I will fast (singular) and (= with) my maidens, Exodus 21:4; 1 Samuel 25:42; 1 Samuel 29:10b (but insert here אַתָּה with ᵐ5) 2 Samuel 12:30 (but read וּבָהּ, as 1 Chronicles 20:2) 1 Samuel 20:10; Nehemiah 6:12; Genesis 4:20; Isaiah 42:5; Jeremiah 19:1 (but read וְלָקַחְתָּ֫ מזקני with ᵐ5) 2 Chron 2:3; 2 Chronicles 13:11; compare Jeremiah 22:7 (אִישׁ וְכֵלָיו), Job 41:12. Whether Isaiah 48:16 וְרוּחוֺ belongs here, is dubious
h. וְ repeated = both . . . and (but גַּם ֗֗֗ גַּם) is more usual in this sense); Genesis 34:28; Numbers 9:14; Joshua 9:23; 2 Samuel 5:8 (text dubious), Isaiah 16:5; Isaiah 38:15; Jeremiah 13:14; Jeremiah 21:6; Jeremiah 32:14 (text dubious) Jeremiah 32:20; Jeremiah 40:8; Psalm 76:7; Job 34:29; Daniel 8:13; Nehemiah 12:28.
i. a repetition of the same word with וְ interposed expresses (a) diversity (rare), Deuteronomy 25:13 אֶבֶן וָאֶבֶן a weight and a weight, i.e. different weights (explained by גְּדֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה), Deuteronomy 25:14; Proverbs 20:23; Psalm 12:3 בְּלֵב וָלֵב with a heart and a heart = with a double heart, 1 Chronicles 12:33 בְּלֹא לֵב וָלֵב; (b) distribution (except in דֹּר וָדֹר Deuteronomy 32:7; Isaiah 13:20 #NAME?Intr. 505) Psalm 87:5; 1 Chronicles 26:13 לְשַׁעַר וָשָֽׁעַר׃ = for every gate, 1 Chronicles 28:14 (twice in verse); 2Chronicles 8:14; 34:13; 35:15; Ezra 10:14 זִקְנֵי עִיר וָעִיר elders of every city, Nehemiah 13:24; Esther 1:8,22 (twice in verse); Esther 2:12; Esther 3:4,12 (4 t. in verse); Esther 8:9 (twice in verse); strengthened by כָּלֿ2Chronicles 11:12 בכל עיר ועיר in every several city, 2 Chronicles 19:5; 28:25; 31:19; 32:28; Esther 2:11 בכליֿום ויום, Esther 3:14; Esther 4:3; Esther 8:11,13,17 (twice in verse); Esther 9:21,27,28; Psalm 45:18; Psalm 145:13 (common in post-Biblical Hebrew, especially with כל).
j. it is used in the formulation of proverbs (the Vav adaequationis, וָו הִשְׁתַּוָּאָה) as Proverbs 17:3; Proverbs 25:3,20,25 cold waters to a thirsty soul and good news from a far country (i.e. they are like each other), Proverbs 26:3,9,14,20; Proverbs 27:21; Ecclesiastes 5:2; Ecclesiastes 7:1; Ecclesiastes 8:8; compare Ecclesiastes 9:11; Psalm 19:5; Psalm 125:2; Job 14:11f.; Job 14:19 (compare in Arabic 'every man and his cares [accusative],' 'every thing and its price,' i.e. they go together: 'merchants and dogs [accusative] of Seleucia,' i.e. they are like one another: see FlKl. Schr. iii. 535 f.). More rarely in the opposite order, Job 5:7; Job 12:11. But 1 Samuel 12:15b cannot be thus explained: read with ᵐ5 וּבְמַלְכְּכֶם, and see Dr.
k. in circumstantial clauses וְ introduces a statement of the concomitant conditions under which the action denoted by the principal verb takes place: in such cases, the relation expressed by וְ must often in English be stated explicitly by a conjunction, as when, since, seeing, though, etc., as occasion may require. So very often, as Genesis 11:4 let us build a tower וְראֹשׁוֺ בַשָּׁמַיִם and its top in the heavens (= with its top in etc.), Genesis 18:12 shall I have pleasure, וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן and my lord is old (= my lord being old)? Judges 16:15 How sayest thou, I love thee, וְלִבְּךָ אֵין אִתִּי and (= when) thy heart is not with me? and especially with a person pronoun, Genesis 15:2 what wilt thou give me וְאָנֹכִי הֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי and I (= the case being that I) am going hence childless? Genesis 18:13; Genesis 20:3 lo, thou wilt die because of the woman thou hast taken וְהִוא בְּעֻלַת בָּֽעַל׃ = seeing she is married, Genesis 24:62 וְהוּא ישֵׁב = since or for he was dwelling (different from וַיֵּשֶׁב = and he proceeded to dwell), Genesis 26:27 וְאַתֶּם seeing ye hate me, Judges 13:9 and came to her וְהִיא ישֶׁבֶת = as she was sitting, 1 Samuel 18:23; 1 Kings 19:19 #NAME? Psalm 72:12 the afflicted וְאֵיןעֹֿזֵר לוֺ and (= when) he has no helper (compare Job 29:12), Job 104:25 וְאֵין מִסְמָּר, Job 105:34; Job 5:9. See more fully Dr§ 156-60 Ges§ 141, R 2. (The analogous use of the is very common in Arabic: Wii. § 183.) Introducing an appeal to a fact confirmatory of some statement or promise, it almost = as truly as (compare Ew§ 340 c) Hosea 12:6 and J. is God of hosts, J. is his name! Joel 4:20; Amos 9:5-6 Isaiah 51:15 and I [who promise this] am J. thy God, who . . . . ! Jeremiah 29:23; Psalm 89:38b (compare in Qoran the frequently 'And God is .. . . . [the mighty, the merciful, etc.]').
2 The ו consecutive (formerly called the Waw 'conversive'); —
a. with the
imperfect (וַּ with following daghesh; before א, וָ), as וַיּאֹמֶר properly = and he proceeded to say, chiefly in contin. of a preceding perfect tense (so Moabite);
b. with the
perfect (וְ, — in 1 & 2 singular, the tone, with certain exceptions [see Dr§ 110], being thrown forward to the ultima), as וְיָָֽשַׁבְתָּ֫ properly so [namely, as limited by a verb, or other term, preceding] hadst thou sat, chiefly in continuation of a preceding imperfect tense, in its various senses of future, jussive, or frequentative. Thefurther analysis of these idioms belongs to the grammar; see on a DrCh. vi., Ges§ 111, and on
b DrCh. viii. Ges§ 112. Here it must suffice to note — (a) ו consecutive (especially with the imperfect) frequently couples two verbs in such a manner that the first, indicating the general character of the action, receives its closer definition in the second: in such cases, the first may often be represented in English by an adverb, as Genesis 26:18 וַיָּשָׁב וַיַּחְמֹּר and he turned and dug = and he dug again; so often; and similarly with הוֺסִיף Genesis 25:1, מִהַר Genesis 24:18, הוֺאִיל Joshua 7:7, etc.; more exceptionally, Genesis 30:27; Esther 8:6, and (not consecutive) Genesis 47:6; Job 23:3; Songs 2:3; Lamentations 3:26 (see Ges§ 120, 2 a; compare in Syriac Nö§ 335-6. In Arabic the stronger form of the conjugation here corresponds: Wii. § 140). (b) וַּ with the imperfect sometimes expresses a contrast = and yet, Genesis 32:31 I have seen God face to face וַתִּנָּצֵל and yet my soul is delivered, Deuteronomy 4:33; 2 Samuel 3:8; 2 Samuel 19:29; Isaiah 51:12; Psalm 73:14; Psalm 144:3; Job 10:8 + (compare Dr§ 74 β). (c) there is a tendency in the later books of the OT to use the perfect with simple וְ, where the classical language would employ the imperfect with וַּ (compare above
1); so especially in Ecclesiastes, where וַּ occurs thrice only, Job 1:17; Job 4:1,7. (d) a double perfect with ו consecutive is sometimes used, informally but neatly, with a hypothetical force; thus (a) in past or present time Exodus 16:21 וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָֽס׃ and the sun used to be warm, and it used to melt = and if (or when) the sun was warm, it melted, Exodus 33:10; 1 Kings 18:10; Jeremiah 18:4,8 וְֹשָׁב וְנִחַמְתִּ֫י = and if it turns, I repent, Jeremiah 20:9 (see RV); (β) in future time, Genesis 44:22 ועזב אביו ומת and he will leave his father, and he will die = and if he leaves his father, he will die, Genesis 33:13; Genesis 42:38; Exodus 4:14; Exodus 12:13; 1 Samuel 16:2; 1 Samuel 19:3; Ezekiel 33:3; Ezekiel 39:15 etc. (Dr§ 147-9, Ges§ 159. 2 e).
3 With a
voluntative (cohortative or jussive) וְ expresses an intention, that or so that (an elegancy by which the too frequent use of לְמַעַן or בַּעֲבוּר is avoided): Exodus 10:17 entreat God, וְיָסֵר so may he remove (= that he may remove) this death, Genesis 27:4 and bring it me וְאֹכֵ֑לָה so let me eat (= that I may eat); and without the modal form being externally indicated, Exodus 14:1 speak . . . וְיָשֻׁבוּ that they return, Exodus 14:15; and often Sts. even of past time, as 1 Kings 13:33 whom he would, he consecrated וִיהִי that there might be priests of the high places, 2 Kings 19:25; Isaiah 25:9 a Lamentations 1:19. After a negative, Psalm 51:18 thou desirest not sacrifice, וְאֶתֵּ֑נָה so [= in that case] would I give it (or, that I might give it), Psalm 55:13 וְאֶשָּׂא so could I bear it (or, that I might bear it), Isaiah 53:2 RVm Numbers 23:19; Jeremiah 5:28 RV. Sts. also before an imperative, Genesis 12:2 and be (= that thou mayest be) a blessing, 2 Samuel 21:3 +. See more fully Dr§ 59-65, Ges§ 108. 2; 109. 2; 110. 2. (In Arabic with the subjunctive is used similarly: Wii. § 15 d.) A volunt. is also sometimes attached by וְ to a preceding volunt. or imperative, so as to form a virtually hypothetical sentence, as Genesis 42:18 זֹאת עֲשׂוּ וִחְיוּ = if you do this, you shall live, Genesis 30:28; Genesis 34:12; Proverbs 3:9f. Proverbs 4:4,8; Isaiah 55:2: see Dr§ 152.
4 It expresses often an informal inference, or consequence, so, then, especially at the beginning of a speech: Genesis 27:8; Psalm 2:10 and often וְעַתָּה now, therefore; וְלָמָּה and וּמַדּוּעַ why, then? Genesis 29:25; Numbers 12:8; Numbers 16:3 +; Exodus 2:20 וְאַיּוֺ where, then, is he? Genesis 34:21; 1 Samuel 15:14; 1 Samuel 26:22 וְיַעֲבֹר let, then, . . . come over, 2 Samuel 24:3; 2 Kings 4:41 וּקְחוּ קֶמַח then bring meal, Ezekiel 18:32. So the וְ consecutive and the perfect, as Deuteronomy 2:4 וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם take heed, therefore, Deuteronomy 4:15; Deuteronomy 7:9 וְיָָֽדַעְתָּ֫ know, therefore, Deuteronomy 30:19; 1 Samuel 6:5; 1 Kings 2:6; Ruth 3:9; Joshua 15:19; Isaiah 40:6b (Dr§ 119 δ).
5 ו introduces the predicate or apodosis: namely
a. וְ consecutive and the Perfect — in answer to אִם or כִּי constantly, as Exodus 19:5; Exodus 23:22 if thou hearkenest to my voice, וְאָֽיַבְתִּ֫י then am I (= I will be) enemy to thy enemies (see Dr§ 136-8); after the casus pendens, Exodus 12:44 every servant that is bought for money, וּמַלְתָּ֫ה thou shalt circumcise him, etc. Numbers 14:31; Numbers 24:24; 1 Samuel 25:27; 2 Samuel 14:10 he that spake unto thee, וַהֲבֵאתוֺ אֵלַי so hast thou brought him (= thou shalt bring him) unto me, Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 56:6f. +; Exodus 12:15; Exodus 31:14; Deuteronomy 17:12 +; after various time-determinations, as Genesis 3:5 in the day of your eating from it וְנִפְקְחוּ then shall your eyes be opened, Exodus 16:6 עֶרֶב וִידַעְתֶּם at even, then shall ye know, Exodus 16:7; Exodus 32:34; 2 Samuel 15:10; 1 Kings 13:31 בְּמוֺתִי וּקְבַרְתֶּם אֹתִי when I die, so ye shall bury me, etc., + often; after conjs., as כִּי Genesis 29:15, יַעַן 1 Kings 20:28; Isaiah 3:16f., תַּחַת Isaiah 60:15, etc., (see Dr§ 123).
b. וַּ consecutive and the imperfect (but much less frequently than the perfect), as Genesis 30:30 the little that thou hadst, וַיִּפְרֹץ it hath increased, Exodus 9:21; 2 Samuel 4:10; 1 Kings 9:20f. 1 Kings 15:13 +; after time-determinations, Genesis 22:4 on the third day וַיִּשָּׂא then Abraham lifted up his eyes, Genesis 19:15; Genesis 27:34; Genesis 37:18; 1 Samuel 6:6; 1 Samuel 12:8; Isaiah 6:1; Hosea 11:1 when Israel was a child, וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ then I loved him, +; occasionally after conjunctions, as כַּאֲשֶׁר Exodus 16:34, יַעַן 1 Samuel 15:23, לְמַעַן Isaiah 45:4, אִם Psalm 59:16 (Dr§ 127).
c. in other cases (not 'consecutive') — all more or less uncommon: namely a. וְ closely joined to the imperfect Genesis 13:9 if to the left, וְאֵימִינָה then I will take the right (compare 2 Samuel 12:8) Exodus 12:3 on the 10th of the month וְיִקְחוּ then let them take, Numbers 16:5; Isaiah 43:4; Hosea 4:6; Hosea 10:10; Psalm 69:33; Job 15:17; 2 Samuel 22:41; Proverbs 23:24 Kt (Dr§ 125); β. separated from the verb, Exodus 8:22; Leviticus 7:16 וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֺתָר יֵאָכֵל and on the morrow, then the remainder shall be eaten, Joshua 3:3; 1 Kings 8:32; Isaiah 8:7; Isaiah 48:7; Job 14:7; Job 20:18; b Job 23:12; Job 25:5; Job 32:14 +; γ. without a verb, Genesis 40:9 בַּחֲלֹמִי וְהִנֵּה in my dream, behold, a vine was before me, Genesis 40:16; 2 Samuel 23:3f.; Proverbs 10:25, and the extreme cases 2 Samuel 15:34 thy father's slave, וַאֲנִי מֵאָז I was that of old, — but now וַאֲנִי עַבְדְּךָ well, I will be thine, Isaiah 34:12 (si vera lectio), Job 4:6b תִּקְוָָֽתְךָ וְתֹם דְּרָכֶיךָ thy confidence — it is the uprightness of thy ways, Job 36:26 מִסְמַּר שָׁנָיו וְלֹא חֵקֶר Ges. seine Jahre, da ist kein Zählen (compare Dr§ 124-5, 128-9). — With 4, 5 compare the Arabic , Wi. § 366 b, 367 c; ii. § 187; Dr§ 185 end.
ז, Zâyin, seventh letter; used as numeral 7 in modern Hebrew; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
זאב (√ of following; according to FlBericht d. sächs. G. d. W. i. (1846-47) 430 f. = Kleinere Schriften iii. 212 f. id quod Arabic drive away, and despise, drive or frighten away, whence , , זְאֵב wolf, as driven or chased away; compare HomNS 304 MV and others)
ח, „êth, 8th letter; = numeral 8 in post Biblical Hebrew
[חֹב], חֻבִּי see below חבב. below
ט, Têth, ninth letter; = numeral 9 in post Biblical Hebrew; טו֞ = 15(9 + 6), טז֞ = 16 (9 + 7), to avoid יה֞ and יו֞, see י, Ges§ 5. 4, R 3 NesZAW 1884, 249.
י, Yôdh, tenth letter; used as numeral 10 in post-Biblical Hebrew; יא or א׳׳י = 11; יב, ב׳׳י = 12, etc.; 14 and 15, however, are not ה׳׳י, ו׳׳י, which might stand for abbreviation of יהוה, but ו׳׳ט, ז׳׳ט, see ט, and Ges§ 5. 4. R. 3 a.
כ, כּ eleventh letter; used as numeral 20 in post Biblical Hebrew; כא = 21, כב = 22, etc.
substantive the like of, like, as (Aramaic כ, Phoenician כ, Arabic , Sabean in כעד דא as till now DHMZMG xxix. 615, Assyrian Ki, kima, DlHWB 325 f.) — before tone-syllable כָּ, as כָּזֶה, כָּאֵ֫לֶּה, כָּחֵ֫מָּה; with suffix כָּכֶם Numbers 15:15 7t. (Job 16:4 כָּכֵם: Köii. 1. 285), כָּהֶם 2 Kings 17:15, כָּהֶן Ezekiel 18:14 [also with nom. forms, כָּהֵ֫מָּה, כָּהֵם, כָּהֵ֫נָּה; see הֵמָּה
8; compare Arabic , , etc.], before light suffix, in the form כְּמוֺ (q. v.), namely כָּמֹנִי, כָּמוֺנִי Genesis 44:15 16t., כָּמוֺךָ Genesis 41:39 28t., כָּמֹכָה Exodus 15:11 (twice in verse), כָּמֹהוּ Exodus 9:18 23t., כָּמוֺהָ Exodus 11:6 2t., כָּמֹנוֺ Genesis 34:15 3t.; also כְּמוֺכֶם Job 12:3, כְּמוֺהֶם Judges 8:18; Psalm 115:8; Psalm 135:18. Prop. an undeveloped substantive, capable of standing in any case and followed (like ) always by a Genitive, as 1 Samuel 20:3 כפשׂע ׳כ for there is (nominative) the like of a footstep (Arabic ) between me and death, Genesis 41:38 הנמצא כזה shall be we find (accusative) the like of this one ? (see especially FlKl. Schrr. i. 376 ff. Mühlau, in Böii. 64 f., with many Arabic examples; also WAG i. § 356 R. c.; ii. § 63 Ges§ 118. 6; compare, for both usage and construction, the Latin instar: this view criticized by Köii. 1, 279 ff., who treats כְּ as demonstrative adverb); but Hebrew having no case-endings, its proper sense was doubtless forgotten, and כְּ became practically equivalent to a preposition like, as: —
1. a. quantitatively (like the Arabic measure, number, size, of . . . : as many as 100), to express exact or approximate equality, in the latter case the like of is = about: Deuteronomy 1:11 Yahweh add to you ככם אלף פעמים the like of you (Saad ) 1000 times (compare 2 Samuel 24:3), Exodus 12:37 כשׁשׁ מאוֺת אלף רגלי the like of (i.e. about) 600,000 footmen, Exodus 32:28 כשׁלשׁת אלפי אישׁ, Joshua 4:13; Joshua 7:3; 1 Samuel 9:22; 1 Samuel 25:38 ויהי כעשׂרת הימים (nomin.) and there was the like of (= about) 10 days, and, etc. Ruth 2:17 כאיפה שׂערים, etc., compare כַּמָּה the like of what ? = how many ? (see מָה); as accusative of space or time, Numbers 11:31 כדרך יום the like of a day's journey, Joshua 3:4; Joshua 10:13 כיום תמים about a whole day (Arabic ), Ruth 1:4 כעשׂר שׁגים. So (as adverb accusative) with words denoting a point of time: often with עֵת, as כָּעֵת הַזּאֹת literally at the like of this time = about this time, Joshua 11:6 and elsewhere, כָּעֵת מָחָר at the like of the time, (being) to-morrow = about to-morrow, Exodus 9:18 +, כָּעֵת חַיָּה (see חי), Isaiah 8:23 כעת הראשׁין at the former time, כָּעֵת alone = at the (present) time, now Numbers 23:23; Judges 13:23; Isaiah 23:5 (unusual) כְּשֵׁמַע צֹר; so כְּהַיּוֺם, כַּיּוֺם (see יוֺם 7h), כִּמְעַט, כְּרֶגַע; and especially with infinitive, see
3b. b. qualitatively (like Arabic likeness of . . .), to express resemblance in respect of some attribute, action, character, appearance, etc.: so very often; as subject of a sentence, Numbers 9:15 כמראה אשׁ the like of (= as it were) an appearance of fire was, etc. (compare Ezekiel 1:4,26 a.; Ezekiel 1:27; Daniel 8:15; Daniel 10:18), Dan 23:22 כתועפות ראם לו, Exodus 24:10; Deuteronomy 4:32 הנהיה כדבר הגדול הזה hath there been the like of this great thing ? Deuteronomy 9:10; Joshua 10:14; Hosea 9:1; Isaiah 23:15; Psalm 58:5; Proverbs 16:27; Lamentations 1:20 בַּבַּיִת כַּמָּוֶת, Ecclesiastes 8:14; Leviticus 14:35 כְּנֶגַע נראה בביתי the like of (i.e. a kind of) mark; מִי כָמוֺכָה who is the like of thee ? Exodus 15:11 (Saad ) +; as Genitive אֵין כָּמוֺךָ 1 Samuel 10:24; 2 Samuel 7:22 +; as predicate, Judges 8:21 כָּאִישׁ גְּבוּרָתוֺ, Habakkuk 2:5 וְהוּא כַמָּוֶת, Psalm 17:14; Psalm 89:30 וכסאו כימי שׁמים (of time: so Psalm 17:37), Psalm 125:1, etc.; after a verb, היה כְּ to become the like of (like), Genesis 3:5 + often (see היה
II. 2 c), compare after שִׂים Genesis 13:16 +, נתן Genesis 42:30 +, שִׁית Psalm 83:12 +, שִׁוָּה Psalm 18:34, נֶחְשַׁב Psalm 44:23 +, נִמְשַׁל Psalm 49:13, הִרְבָּה Genesis 22:17 +; add כָּזֹאת, כָּאֵלֶּה the like of this (these), i.e. tale, talia (whether nom. or accusative) Judges 13:23; Judges 15:7; Judges 20:30; Leviticus 10:19 + (see זֹאת, אֵלֶּה). Cases such as to give or reward a man כמעשׂהו, כרעתו, etc., the like of his doings, etc., 2 Samuel 3:39; 1 Kings 8:32; Psalm 18:25; Psalm 28:4, to speak כדבר הזה or כדברים האלה Genesis 18:25; Genesis 24:28 #NAME?
c. as an accusative of mode or limitation, in or with the like of (= like, as according to, κατά); — (1) expressing conformity to a standard or rule: Genesis 1:26 let us make man כדמותנו according to our likeness, Genesis 9:3; Joshua 19:47; Judges 20:10; 1 Samuel 13:14 hath looked out אישׁ כלבבו a man according to his own heart (Jeremiah 3:15); to do a thing כמשׁפט הזה Joshua 6:15, compare Genesis 40:13; 2 Kings 11:14, etc., ׳כדבר פ Genesis 44:2 + often, כְּצִדְקִי Psalm 7:9, כְּחַסְדְּךָ Psalm 51:3, בַּכָּתוּב according to what is written Joshua 8:31,34 +, בלא ככתיב (late) 2 Chronicles 30:18, etc. (2) in comparisons: qualifying an adjective, Exodus 16:14 דַּק כַּכְּפוֺר, Songs 6:10 יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה, compare Genesis 13:10; a verb Psalm 7:3 מֶּןיִֿטְרֹף כְּאַרְיֵה, Psalm 19:6 יָשִׂישׂ כְּגִבּוֺר, Isaiah 42:13, etc.; with the tertium compare. attached in a relative clause, Deuteronomy 32:11 בַּנֶּשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנִּי like the great vulture, (that) stirreth up its nest, Job 9:26; Job 11:16; Isaiah 61:10 like the bride, who putteth on, etc., Isaiah 62:1 כְּלַמִּיד יִבְעַר like a touch (that) burns (on the presence or absence of the article in such cases, see הַ 1f), Psalm 42:2; Psalm 83:15 (below 2d) + often (compare Dr§ 34: כְּ is not in these cases to be construed as a conjunction [ = כַּאֲשֶׁכ] with the verb: see DePs 38:14 Ges§ 155, 2 b, 1 R.).
d. sometimes כְּ is used in particular to compare an object with the class to which it belongs, and express its correspondence with the idea which it ought to realize: Isaiah 13:6 ( = Joel 1:15) of the ׳יום י, כְּשֹׁד מִשַּׁדֵּי יָבוֺא i.e. it comes as a veritable, or ideal, destruction from Shaddai, Isaiah 29:2 of Ariel (Isa 29:1) והיתה לי כאריאל i.e. shall be to me as a TRUE Ariel (compare Ges§ 118x): so also, according to Hi De, Isaiah 10:13; Ezekiel 26:10; Zechariah 14:3; 2 Samuel 9:8; Psalm 122:3; Songs 8:10 (see De), Ecclesiastes 10:5; Nehemiah 7:2. The older grammarians called this the Kaph veritatis (a translations of Ki's כף֞ הָאֲמִתּוּת, כף֞ לאמת הדבר, Michl45a (Lyck), CommJoshua 3:4; 1 Samuel 9:13; Isaiah 1:7; Hosea 5:10, or כף֞ הָאֲמִתִּי, Lexicon under the word יוֺם): they extended it unduly (e.g. to Numbers 11:1; Lamentations 1:20; Hosea 11:4).
2 repeated, כְּכְּ֗֗֗, to signify the completeness of the correspondency between two objects (peculiar to Hebrew):
a. in a principal clause, Genesis 18:25 וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק בָּרָשָׁע literally that the like of the righteous be the like of the wicked, i.e. that the righteous be as the wicked, Genesis 44:18 כמיך כפרעה the like of thee is the like of Pharaoh, i.e. thou art as Pharaoh, Leviticus 24:22 כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח יִהְיֶה, 1 Kings 22:4 כָּמֹנִי כָמוֺךָ כְּעַמִּי כְעַמְּךָ (Van Dyck ), Haggai 2:3 הֲלוֺא כָמֹהוּ כְּאַיִן בְּעֵינֵיכֶם is not the like of it the like of nothing in your eyes ? i.e. is it not like nothing in your eyes ? Psalm 139:12 כַּחֲשֵׁיכָה כָּאוֺרָה i.e. the darkness (to thee) is as the light. Usually the first term is the subject and the second is the standard with which it is compared: but occas. the terms are inverted, as Leviticus 7:7; Numbers 15:15; Judges 8:18 כמוך כמוהם (Van Dyck ), Hosea 4:9; Isaiah 24:2, compare Isaiah 59:18 Note, below)
b. in a subordinate clause (to be regarded as subordinated in the accusative to the principal verb); (α) attached to the subject of the principal verb, Leviticus 24:16 כגר כאזרחי֗֗֗ומת he shall be put to death, the like of the stranger (being) the like of the homeborn, Joshua 8:33. (β) attached to its object, Deuteronomy 1:17 כקטן כגדל תשׁמעון literally ye shall hear (them), the like of the small (being) the like of the great.
c. occasionally, for כְּכְּ֗֗֗, there occurs ׃בְּו֗֗֗כ Joshua 14:11 כְּכֹחִי אָז וּכְכֹחִי עָ֑תָּה the like of my strength then, and the like of my strength now, i.e. they are similar (compare וְ 1j) 1 Samuel 30:24; Ezekiel 18:4; Daniel 11:29.
d. yet more distinct than כְּכְּ֗֗֗, is כְּכֵּ֗֗֗ן; in a nominal sentence (Ges§ 140-1), 'כְּ with its Genitive forming the predicate, and כֵּן resuming it with emphasis and connecting it with the subject;' 1 Samuel 25:25 כִּי כִשְׁמוֺ כֶּןהֿוּא for the like of his name, such (or so) is he, Genesis 44:10; Joshua 2:21; Jeremiah 18:6; Psalm 48:11; Psalm 127:4; Proverbs 10:26 +; in a verbal sentence, 'כְּ preceding, as an accusative of state, and giving the secundum comparationis, and כֵּן resuming it,' Joel 2:4 כפרשׁים כן ירוצון 'instar (accusative) equitum, sic currunt' (Fll.c.), Hosea 4:7 literally with (or in) the likeness of their multiplying, so they sinned against me, Genesis 6:22; 1 Samuel 8:8; Isaiah 38:14; Ezekiel 22:22; Psalm 42:2; Psalm 83:15 #NAME?
3 before an infinitive:
a. like (literally with or in the likeness of . . .), Judges 14:6 כְּשַׁסַּע הַגְּדִי like the rending of a kid, i.e. as when a kid is rent (by a lion), 2 Samuel 3:34; Isaiah 5:24; Psalm 66:10; Psalm 68:3; Job 2:10, etc.; = as if, Isaiah 10:15 or shall the saw magnify itself against him that wieldeth it כהניף שׁבט אתמֿרימיו with the like of a staff's shaking (= as if a staff were to shake) him that lifted it !
b. of time, about, at, whether of the past or of the future: Genesis 19:17 כהוציאם אותם at their bringing them forth, i.e. as or when they brought them forth Genesis 24:30; Genesis 29:13; Genesis 39:10,13 + very often; of the future, Genesis 44:30,31; Deuteronomy 20:2,9; 2 Samuel 13:28 +; Isaiah 28:20b (different from Isaiah 28:29 a) and the covering is (too) narrow when one gathers oneself in. Occasionally with the verbal noun, Hosea 13:6 כמרעיתם at the time of their feeding, Isaiah 30:19 כְּשָׁמְעָתוֺ; וּכְחֶזְקָתוֺ2Chronicles 12:1; 26:16; Daniel 11:2 (Ew§ 238 a, 239 a): compare Isaiah 23:5b כְּשֵׁמַע צֹר. With the participle Genesis 38:29 (si vera lectio), perhaps Genesis 40:10; compare Dr§ 135. 6, Obs.2
Note. — כְּ is rarely prefixed to prepositions, the only examples which occur being the idiomatic כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה, Judges 20:32; 1 Kings 13:6; Isaiah 1:26; Jeremiah 33:7,11; כְּבַתְּחִלָּה in the "" clause Isaiah 50.; כְּבַחֲצִי 1 Samuel 14:14 (apparently corrupt); כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים Genesis 38:24 (and probably כְמֵחֹדֶשׁ 1 Samuel 10:27 ᵐ5); כְּמִמְּנֵי Leviticus 26:37; כְּעַל (late):
a. pleon. for כְּ (עַל = according to), Isaiah 63:7 כְּעַל כָּלאֲֿשֶׁר עָשָׂה, Isaiah 59:18, כְּעַל גְּמֻלוֺת כְּעַל יְשַׁלֵּם the like of their deeds is the like of (that which) he will repay (ellipse of rel., as Job 34:32, etc.);
b. = as over Psalm 119:14, = as concerning2Chronicles 32:19. Where logically a preposition would seem to be required after כ, it is in Hebrew regularly omitted (Ges§ 118. 3 R), the nature of כְּ, as explained above, not in fact admitting it; thus Isaiah 1:25 I will purge away thy dross כַּבֹּר [not, as in English, like as with lye, but] (with) the like of lye (כ being an accusative defining the mode in which אצרף takes place); Isaiah 5:17 כְּדָבְרָם in English as in their pasture, Judges 20:39; כְּיוֺם as in day of, Isaiah 9:3; Psalm 95:8 +, כִּימֵי Job 29:3 who will set me as in the days of old ! Isaiah 51:9 +, כְּנֹקֶף זַיִת as at, etc., Isaiah 17:6: so with לְ Psalm 83:10; Job 29:23, על Job 30:5. כְּ is used also pregnantly with substantives, Psalm 18:34 who meketh my feet like hinds (for like the feet of hinds), Isaiah 29:4; Isaiah 63:2 בגדיך כדורך בגת, Jeremiah 50:9; Job 40:9 and elsewhere compare Ges§§ 118. 6; 141. 2 R. n.
ל, twelfth letter; used as numeral 30 in Post-Biblical Hebrew
preposition to, for, in regard to (Moabite, Phoenician ל, Aramaic לְ, Arabic Ethiopic Assyrian la in lapân = לִפְנֵי, DlHWB 530), before tone-syllables usually לָ (Köii. 276 f.); with suffix לִי; לְךָ, לְכָה Genesis 27:37; 2 Samuel 18:22; Isaiah 3:6, לָ֑ךְ; feminine לָךְ, לֵכִי 2 Kings 4:2; Songs 2:13 Kt (probably North Palestinian dialect : compare Syriac ); לוֺ (15 t., according to Masoretes, written incorrectly לֹא: see לֹא note); לָהּ; לָהֿ Numbers 32:42; Zechariah 5:11; Ruth 2:14; לָ֫נוּ; לָכֶם לָכֶ֫נָה Ezekiel 13:18 (לָכֶן does not occur); לָהֶם, in poetry לָ֫מוֺ (55 t., including a few cases where, according to many, it stands for לוֺ: compare Ges§ 103. 2a, n. DiIsaiah 44:15. 53, 8), [also לָהֵ֫מָּה Jeremiah 14:16]; לָהֶן [ לָהֵן (q. v.) Ruth 1:13 (twice in verse), לָהֵ֫נָּה5t., see הֵמָּה].
Preposition denoting direction (not properly motion, as אֶל) towards, or reference to; and hence used in many varied applications, in some of which the idea of direction predominates, in others that of reference (compare GiesDie Präp. Lamed, 1876): —
1 very often, with various classes of verbs, to, towards, for: namely
a. verbs of looking, listening, attending, waiting, etc., as האמין, התחֹלל, יחל, הוחיל, נכסף, כלה (Psalm 84:3 + ), אזן, הטה, שׁת) לב, הכין, נתן (נטה, קִוָּה, הקשׁיב, שׁמע (sometimes), צמא to thirst for (Exodus 17:3; Psalm 42:3), השׁתחוה (to Genesis 37:10, towards Psalm 99:5); sometimes also with האזין, הביט, נִבַּט, ראה, נפשׁ, נשׂא (see these verbs; many are also construed with other prepositions); Isaiah 51:6; Psalm 44:21; pregnantly Isaiah 38:14; השׁתאה ל Genesis 24:21, החרישׁל Numbers 30:5; Numbers 30:8: sometimes without a verb, as Judges 5:9 לִבִּי לְ, Jeremiah 5:3 עיניך ל, Psalm 33:18 ("" אל), Psalm 39:8 תוחלתי לך היא, Psalm 120:7 המה למלחמה, Psalm 130:6 נפשׁי לאדני (compare Isaiah 26:8), Isa 143:6; Daniel 11:27; 2Chronicles 3:13; 32:2.
b. with verbs of saying, calling, singing, vowing, sacrificing, etc., as אמר, דבר (chiefly with God as subject = promise, Genesis 24:7; 1 Kings 5:26 +, especially in D כאשׁר דבר לְ Deuteronomy 1:11 (see Dr), Deuteronomy 1:21 etc.; with human subject Genesis 49:28; Judges 14:7; 1 Kings 2:19 and elsewhere (Gie42f.: דבר אל is more common), זבח, זמּר, הודה, הגיד, נדר, נשׂא יד (in oath) Ezekiel 20:5,6,23; Psalm 106:26, קִטֵר, הריע, נשׁבע, שָׁר etc.
c. with verbs of giving, leaving, bringing, offering etc., as הביא, הִמִּיל allot (Joshua 13:6), נתן, הסגיר, עזב Psalm 16:9 abandon to Sheol Isaiah 18:6, הקריבּ Leviticus 17:4, שׁוב = to be returned Deuteronomy 28:31, השׁיב = bring back Deuteronomy 22:1, = requite 2 Samuel 16:12, שִׁלַּח, etc.
d. with verbs of dealing, acting towards (whether with friendly or hostile intent), as עשׂה ל Genesis 19:8 + often, גמל ל Isaiah 3:9; so with הֵייטִב, הֵרַע, הֵמַר, חָטָא to sin against (Genesis 20:9 +), אָשָׁם to be guilty towards (Leviticus 5:19), שַׁקֵּר, כִּחֵשׁ to lie to, כִּזֵּב; with verbs of mocking or laughing against, at, as לעג לְ Psalm 2:4, שׂחק לְ Psalm 37:13, שׂמח לְ to rejoice over Psalm 35:19; Ezekiel 35:15, causative שִׂמַּח לְ Psalm 30:2, עלץ לְ Psalm 25:2: with other verbs denoting hostility (less common than ב or על), Genesis 27:42 מתנחם לך להרגך, 2 Kings 5:7; Exodus 11:7 (so Joshua 10:21: compare Job 16:9), Jeremiah 25:31; Jeremiah 50:9; Psalm 7:14; Psalm 37:12; Psalm 56:3; Psalm 106:16 קנא לְ (usually In good sense,
5g c)Job 20:27; 34:37. And with adjectives, as Psalm 73:1 טוב ל good to, Genesis 13:13 ׳רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים לי towards ׳י 2 Samuel 22:24 תָּמִים לוֺ ("" Psalm 18:24 עִמּוֺ), Psalm 89:29 נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֺ; with substantive (rare) Exodus 32:12; Lamentations 3:60 (synonym V:61 על).
e. with words denoting what is pleasurable or the reverse, as נעם לְ 2 Samuel 1:26, ערב ל Hosea 9:4, יֵמַר לְ Isaiah 24:7, טוֺב לְ (adjective) 1 Samuel 1:8, נָקֵל לְ 2 Kings 20:10, also הועיל ל סכן ל to be profitable to; and with neuter verbs, to denote the subject of a sensation or emotion, as טוֺב לְ to be well to (with), Deuteronomy 5:30; Deuteronomy 19:13 +, מַר לְ Ruth 1:13, צַר לְ 1 Samuel 13:6 + often, כְּרֹב לְ Hosea 10:1, רָוַח לְ 1 Samuel 16:23, חַם לְ to be warm to, 1 Kings 1:1, רַע לְ Psalm 106:32, חָרָה לְ it was hot (= anger arose) to Genesis 4:6 + often, חָֽשְׁכָה לְ Micah 3:6. And with passive Vbs., נִסְלַח לוֺ it is forgiven to him = he is forgiven Leviticus 4:26 + often; otherwise rare, נִרְצָה לְ Leviticus 1:4, נִרְמָּא לָנוּ it is healed to us = we are healed Isaiah 53:5, הוּנַח ל Lamentations 5:5, יְבֻלַּע לְ 2 Samuel 17:16 (see Dr).
f. with verbs of reaching to, touching, attaching etc., as אסר ל to bind to, חבשׁ, דבק Psalm 44:26, מצא to reach to Isaiah 10:10,14; Psalm 21:9, הגיע Exodus 4:25, נצמד Numbers 25:5, קרוב (adjective) Ruth 2:20; out of connection with a verb (almost = עַד), Joshua 16:1; Psalm 59:14; Job 28:3; Nehemiah 3:15; 2Chronicles 33:14, and correl. to מִן (see מִן 5).
g. with verbs of motion,as הלך, בא שָׁב etc. (not so common as אל, or the simple accusative with or without ה locative) — (a) with places, rare in early prose, Joshua 1:15; Joshua 8:14; Judges 1:34; Judges 20:10 (but see GFM), 1 Samuel 9:12; 1 Samuel 20:25; 2 Kings 3:27, except in particular phrases, namely למקומו Genesis 18:33, לדרכו Genesis 32:2, לאהליו 1 Samuel 4:10 (also with other suffixes: all these + often, especially with שׂוב and הלך, or preceded by distributive אישׁ לאהליו(ךׅ, also, without verb, as exclamation, 2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16), לארצו Genesis 30:25+, אִישׁ לִירֻשָּׁתוֺ Deuteronomy 3:20, אישׁ לנחלתו Joshua 24:28 +, אישׁ לעירו 1 Samuel 8:22; Nehemiah 13:10: often In late Hebrew, as Job 4:5; 1 Chronicles 4:39,42; 1 Chronicles 5:26; 1 Chronicles 12:1; 1 Chronicles 12:9; 1 Chronicles 22:18; 1 Chronicles 24:19; 2Chronicles 1:3; 8:17 + often Chronicles, Ezra 2:68 +, Nehemiah 10:35ff.; Esther 6:4; Psalm 96:8; Psalm 132:7; Psalm 146:4: לירושׁלם Jeremiah 3:17b (omitted by ᵐ5), Zechariah 1:16, and often Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah (as 2Chronicles 11:14; 19:1; 30:3,11), לשׁמרון2Chronicles 18:2; 28:8,9, לבבל Jeremiah 51:2; Ezra 2:1; 1 Chronicles 9:1; 2Chronicles 36:7 (but earlier always ירושׁלם, שׁמרון, בבל or בבלה); and in poetry Judges 5:11; Isaiah 22:1; Isaiah 23:17; Isaiah 49:18; Isaiah 51:14 (pregnantly) ימות לשׁחת, Isaiah 59:20; Isaiah 60:4,5,7; Isaiah 65:12; Jeremiah 31:17; Jeremiah 48:15; Jeremiah 50:27; Micah 1:12; Zechariah 9:12; Psalm 7:8; Psalm 68:19; Psalm 74:3; Songs 4:16; Songs 5:1; Songs 6:2; Songs 7:13 נשׁכימה לכרמים, Job 10:19; Job 20:6; הוציא לְ Psalm 18:20; Psalm 66:12, לאור Micah 7:9; Job 12:22. יוּבַל ל Hosea 10:6 + : without a verb, Isaiah 23:5; Hosea 7:12. Also לָאָרֶץ, with many verbs, both in sense down to the earth, Isaiah 14:12; Isaiah 21:9; Isaiah 28:2; Amos 3:14; Amos 5:7; Ezekiel 26:11; Psalm 7:6 +, with חִלֵּל (pregnantly) Psalm 74:7; Psalm 89:40, and idiomatically with ישׁב to sit on the earth, Isaiah 3:26; Isaiah 47:1; Job 2:13 +, without verb Isaiah 26:9: so לֶעָפָר Job 7:21; Psalm 7:6, הוריד לשׁחת Ezekiel 28:8. (b) with persons, not very common, Deuteronomy 32:35; Isaiah 31:6; Isaiah 57:9; Jeremiah 3:22 אָתָנוּ לָ֑ךְ, Psalm 45:15; Psalm 119:79; Job 18:14; 1 Chronicles 12:16; Nehemiah 6:19, לְעַמִּי Numbers 24:14; Ruth 1:10: בא לְ, especially with pronoun לְךָ, לָהּ etc. (friendly) 2 Samuel 12:4; Zechariah 9:9; Amos 6:1, (hostile) 2 Samuel 5:23; Jeremiah 46:22; Jeremiah 49:9; Jeremiah 50:26; Jeremiah 51:48,53; with athing as subject Deuteronomy 33:16 (לראשׁ), 2 Samuel 24:13; Isaiah 47:9; Job 3:25 (compare Isaiah 66:4), Jeremiah 4:12; Jeremiah 22:33 בְּבאֹ לָךְ חֲבָלִים (so Hosea 13:13; Isaiah 66:7). And with verbs of placing (where עַל would be more usually) Psalm 21:4 תָּשִׁית לְראֹשׁוֺ עֲטֶרֶת מָּז, Psalm 22:16; Psalm 66:12, with לְכִסֵּא Psalm 9:5; Psalm 132:11; Psalm 132:12; Job 36:7: compare נָפַל לְאַמָּיוּ, הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה, Genesis 48:12 + (also ׳עַל א).
h. expressing direction towards (without contact), לאחור backwards Jeremiah 7:24, לַחוּץ outwards Psalm 41:7, למעלה upwards, למטה downwards; to scatter לכל רוח Jeremiah 49:32 compare Jeremiah 49:36; Ezekiel 5:10 +, (שׁמים לארבע רוחות Ezekiel 42:20; Daniel 8:8; Daniel 11:4; 1 Chronicles 9:24: of the points of the compass (without verb) לִפְאַת ֗֗֗ towards the quarter of (the north, south, etc.) Exodus 26:18 + often P (so Ezekiel 47:15), לדרום למזרח etc. (late: earlier ממזרח, or מזרחה etc.) Ezekiel 40:23; Ezekiel 41:11,14; Ezekiel 42:4; Nehemiah 3:26; 1 Chronicles 5:9; 1 Chronicles 6:63; 1 Chronicles 7:28; 1 Chronicles 12:15; 1 Chronicles 26:16-18 2Chronicles 31:14, למדבר2Chronicles 20:24; also (peculiarly) 1 Samuel 14:40; 1 Kings 20:38; 2 Kings 11:11.
i. expressing addition (rare); Isaiah 28:10,13 צַו לָצַו קַו לָקַו, Isaiah 56:8 (resuming על), Ecclesiastes 7:27 אחת לאחת (adding) one to another, Ezra 8:24; Nehemiah 11:17 (על is more usual in this sense).
2 Expressing locality, at, near, idiomatic in the phrases לִפְנֵי = before (sometimes after verbs of motion, as 1 Kings 1:23, but very often otherwise), לְעֵינֵי in the sight of, לְיַד, לִימִין, לִשְׂמאֹל (only Ecclesiastes 10:2), לפתח at the entrance (of), Genesis 4:7; Numbers 11:10 +; in other, rarer connections, Numbers 20:24 לְמֵי ֗֗֗ (usually על), Judges 5:16 ("" Judges 5:15 ב), לְחוֺף Genesis 49:13 (twice in verse); Judges 5:17, לְפִי Psalm 141:7; Proverbs 8:3; Hosea 5:1 לְמִצְמָּה, 2 Chronicles 35:15. לִפְנִימָה = within, 1 Kings 6:30; Ezekiel 40:16.
3 To denote the object of a verb —
a. with the Hiph`il, mostly of intransitive verbs, properly (as it seems) a dativus commodi [dative of benefit], as הֵנִיחַ לְ to give rest to, הִרְחִיב to give width to, הֵצַר לְ, הֵצִיק לְ, exceptionally also with other words, as הִרְגִּיוּ, הוֺכִיחַ, הִצְדִּיק to give righteousness to, Isaiah 53:11, הֶחֱיָה Genesis 45:7, הֵבִין give understanding to (late), הִצְלִיחַ (do.), הִרְבָּה Hosea 10:1, הִשְׂגִּיא Job 12:23, הִפְתָּה Genesis 9:27 give breadth to.
b. with other verbs, sporadically early (if the text be sound), but mostly late, in conseq. of Aramaic influence (in Aramaic the accusative being constantly denoted by ל), as אהב Leviticus 19:18,34; 2Chronicles 19:2, הרג 2 Samuel 3:30; Job 5:2, בוּז (mostly), בזה 2 Samuel 6:16, sometimes also זכר to remember, עבד to serve (work or do service for), עזר (2 Samuel 8:5, and especially late), דרשׁ (especially Chronicles), הִלֵּל (only Chronicles Ezra), רפא (probably the dativus commodi [dative of benefit]), שִׂחֵת 1 Samuel 23:10; Numbers 32:15, נִדָּה Amos 6:3, גִּדֵּל Psalm 34:4, מִּתַּח Psalm 116:16, כִּבֵּד Psalm 86:9; Daniel 11:38, חִזַּק 1 Chronicles 26:27; 1 Chronicles 29:12, בֵּרַךְ 1 Chronicles 29:20; Nehemiah 11:2, חֵרֵף2Chronicles 32:17; see also 1 Samuel 22:7; 2 Kings 8:6; Jeremiah 16:6; Jeremiah 40:2; Jonah 4:6; Psalm 69:6; Psalm 73:18; Psalm 135:11; Psalm 136:19; Psalm 136:20; Proverbs 17:26; Job 12:23b Lamentations 4:5; 1 Chronicles 16:37; 1 Chronicles 18:6 (הושׁיע, altered from 2 Samuel 8:6: so Psalm 116:6), 1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Chronicles 29:22 (twice in verse); 2Chronicles 5:11; 6:42; 17:7; 24:5; 34:13 (usually על), Ezra 8:16; at the end of an enumeration, 1 Chronicles 28:1b; 2Chronicles 24:12b; 2 Chronicles 26:14b; 2 Chronicles 28:23; marking the definite object in apposition, 1 Chronicles 29:18; 2Chron 2:12; 2 Chronicles 23:1; Psalm 135:11; Psalm 136:19; Psalm 136:20 ( = earlier את, Genesis 26:34; Judges 3:15; Isaiah 7:6; Isaiah 8:2); after a suffix (in Syriac fashion), 1 Chronicles 5:26 ׳וַיַּגְלֵם ל, 1 Chronicles 23:6; 2Chronicles 25:5,10; 28:15, compare Nehemiah 9:32; defining anomalously the suffix of a noun, Numbers 29:18,21,24 etc. 1 Chronicles 7:5 הִתְיַחֲשָׂם לַכֹּל, 2 Chronicles 31:16,18; Ezra 9:1; Ezra 10:14. (But in sentences of the type אֵין דּוֺרֵשׁ לְנַפְשִׁי Psalm 142:5; b Psalm 72:12; Isaiah 51:18; Jeremiah 14:16; Jeremiah 49:5; Lamentations 1:7,9,17,21, the ל belongs probably to ׃אין compare the "" types אֵין לִי מַכִּיר Psalm 142:5 a Deuteronomy 28:31; Jeremiah 50:32; Lamentations 1:2, דֹּרֵשׁ אֵין לָהּ Jeremiah 30:17; Lamentations 4:4.) compare Ges§ 117n.
4 Into (εἰς), of a transition into a new state or condition, or into a new character or office: —
a. Genesis 2:22 וַיִּבֶן אֶתהַֿצֵּלָע לְאִשָּׁה into a woman, Genesis 12:2 וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֺי גָּדוֺל into a great nation, and very often with this and similar verbs, as Exodus 26:7; Isaiah 44:17,19, שָׂם Genesis 46:3; Isaiah 5:20 make bitter into sweet etc., Isaiah 28:17, נָתַן Isaiah 42:6, also in such phrases as לְשַׁמָּהשָׂם to make into a desolation Isaiah 13:9; Jeremiah 4:7 etc. Jeremiah 19:8; הפך ל to change into Exodus 7:15; Deuteronomy 23:6 +, to cut or divide into Genesis 32:8; Judges 19:29; Isaiah 11:15 +, שָׂרַף לְ to burn into Amos 2:1; Deuteronomy 9:21 דַּק לְעָפָר פעל Psalm 7:14 maketh into (or to be) flaming ones; היה ל to become, in many different connections, as Genesis 2:7 ויהי האדם לנפשׁ חיה became a living soul (see היה
II. 2 e, p. 226 a); משׁח למלך (לנגיד ׅ to anoint so as to be king, as king (German 'zum Konig': compare Old English to, as Judges 17:13 and 'We have Abraham to our father'), 1 Samuel 9:16; 1 Samuel 15:1 etc., צִוָּה לְ to appoint as 1 Samuel 13:14; 1 Samuel 25:30; שׁת לְ Psalm 45:17; even more freely, as דִּבֶּר עָלַי לְמֶלֶךְ 1 Kings 14:2, compare 2 Samuel 3:17; 1 Chronicles 29:23; חשׁב ל to count for (or as) Genesis 38:15 + often; Exodus 21:7 when a man sells his daughter לְאָמָה for, as, a female slave, Deuteronomy 6:8 to bind לְאוֺת for, as, a sign, הִתְיַצֵּב (יָצָא) לְשָׂטָן so as to be an adversary Numbers 22:22,32, קום (הקים) לְאֹרֵב 1 Samuel 22:8,13, עמד לְ Isaiah 11:10; Daniel 11:1, יצא לַחָפְשִׁי to go forth into the state of one free Exodus 21:2 (compare Exodus 21:26; Exodus 21:27 after שׁלח), 2 Kings 25:12; Isaiah 14:2; Jeremiah 34:11; Psalm 48:4 נודע לְ hath made himself known as, Psalm 87:4 הזכיר לְ to mention as, Ezekiel 13:20; in poetry Job 39:16 הִקְשִׁיחַ בָּנֶיהָ לְלֹאלָֿהּ treats her young ones hardly (turning them) into none of hers: without a verb (poetry, or late prose) Micah 1:14; Nahum 1:7; Habakkuk 1:11 זוֺ כֹחוֺ לֵאלֹהוֺ, Zechariah 4:7; Lamentations 4:3; Job 13:12; Haggai 1:9; 1 Chronicles 21:12; 1 Chronicles 26:29; 1 Chronicles 28:18b 2Chronicles 23:4.
b. this usage is also combined idiomatically, with great frequency, with a 2nd לְ, of reference (
5a d), giving rise to such phrases as Genesis 1:29 לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה to you it shall be for food (see היה
II. 2 f, p. 226 b), Genesis 45:8 וַיְשִׂימֵנִי לְאָב לְפַרְעֹה, Genesis 47:26; Deuteronomy 28:9,25; Judges 1:33; 1 Samuel 2:28; Isaiah 21:4; Isaiah 28:18b וִהְיִיתֶם לוֺ לְמִרְמָס, Isaiah 49:5 יֹצְרִי מִבֶּטֶן לְעֶבֶד לוֺ, Isaiah 63:8,10; וַיֵּהָפֵךְ לָהֶם לְאוֺיֵב (Job 30:21), Jeremiah 15:4,20; Jeremiah 20:4; Jeremiah 21:9; Habakkuk 2:7; Psalm 33:12; Psalm 94:22; Psalm 132:13; Psalm 139:22; Job 13:24 ותחשׁבני לאויב לך, Job 16:12 etc.
5 With reference to, namely
a. defining those in reference to whom a predicate is affirmed, hence often = belonging to, of: (a) Deuteronomy 23:3 דור עשׂירי לא יבא לו, Deuteronomy 23:4; Deuteronomy 23:9; Lamentations 1:10; הכרית לְ 1 Samuel 2:33; 1 Kings 14:10 +; השׁבית לְ Jeremiah 48:35; לֹא יִכָּרֵת אִישׁ לְ 1 Kings 2:4; 1 Kings 8:25 +; 1 Samuel 25:34 אִם נוֺתַר לְ, Genesis 17:10 המול לכם כל בשׂר, Genesis 34:15,22; Exodus 12:48; 1 Samuel 11:2; 1 Kings 14:13; ישׁב על כסא לְ 2 Kings 10:30; 2 Kings 15:12; Jeremiah 13:13; Jeremiah 22:4; Psalm 132:12 compare Psalm 132:11; ראה בנים לְ Genesis 50:23; Psalm 128:6; אבד לְ to perish belonging to 1 Samuel 9:3,20; Isaiah 26:14; מצא לְ to find belonging to Deuteronomy 22:14; 1 Samuel 13:22; Genesis 23:16 money עֹבֵר לַסֹּחֵר current to ( = with) the merchant, Numbers 9:10; Amos 9:1; Isaiah 33:14; Job 12:6: note further the pronoun in Exodus 10:5 הַצֹּמֵחַ לכם מן השׂדה, Exodus 12:2,5; Exodus 26:33; Leviticus 11:29 וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא (compare Leviticus 11:4-8), Leviticus 19:23; Leviticus 25:30; Leviticus 26:5,26 בְּשִׁבְרִי לָכֶם מַטֵּה לֶחֶם (Ezekiel 14:13), Numbers 28:19; Numbers 32:21; Numbers 34:4; Deuteronomy 28:66; Joshua 2:6 הָעֲרֻכוֺת לָהּ עַל הַגָּג, Judges 16:9; Judges 19:14 (compare זָרַח לְ Genesis 32:32 +), 1 Samuel 5:9; 2 Samuel 15:30; 2 Kings 4:27b נַפְשָׁהּ מָרָהלָֿהּ (compare Isaiah 15:4; Jeremiah 4:19), Isaiah 23:7; Jeremiah 2:21; Micah 2:4 איך ימישׁ לי, Ezekiel 16:14; Ezekiel 29:7; Psalm 110:3; also Psalm 40:7 ears hast thou digged to (or for) me, Psalm 51:12 (compare 1 Samuel 10:9), Isaiah 50:4,5 יעיר לי אזן. (b) in such phrases as Numbers 1:4 אִישׁ אִישׁ לְמַטֶּה a man for (or of) a tribe, Numbers 7:11; Numbers 31:4, Deuteronomy 1:23; Joshua 3:12; Joshua 18:4; Judges 20:10 ten men לַמֵּאָה of 100, 100 of1000etc.; רִאשׁוֺן לְ = first of Exodus 12:2; 2 Samuel 19:21. (c) specifically of relationship, to define a man's family or tribe, especially in Genealogies, Numbers 1:6 לראובן אליצור, Numbers 1:7; Numbers 1:8 etc., Numbers 1:22; Numbers 1:24 etc., Numbers 3:21,27; 1 Chronicles 24:20,21 etc., 1 Chronicles 26:23,25 etc. + often; in the opposite order Exodus 31:2; Leviticus 24:11; Numbers 17:23 אהרן לבית לוי 1 Kings 15:27 etc., compare 2 Samuel 3:2,3,5, also 2 Samuel 9:3 a Genesis 20:18; Genesis 46:26,27; similarly הנשׁארים לְ 2 Kings 10:11,17, הַמֵּת לְ 1 Kings 14:11; 1 Kings 16:4 +. (d) denoting relation (to be to or towards one in a particular regard or capacity) Exodus 19:5 והייתם לי סְגֻלָּה ye shall be to me a special possession, Exodus 22:30 אנשׁי קדשׁ תהיון לי, 1 Samuel 18:18; 2 Samuel 19:29; 1 Kings 5:15; 2 Kings 19:15; Jeremiah 12:9; Jeremiah 15:8; Jeremiah 22:6 גלעד אתה לי, Jeremiah 51:20; Isaiah 54:9; Ezekiel 24:19; Psalm 12:5 מִי אָדוֺן לָנוּ, Psalm 35:14 כְּרֵעַ כְּאָח לִי, Psalm 99:8; Job 24:17; Job 30:29; Nehemiah 6:18; with a participle Numbers 10:25; Numbers 25:18; Numbers 35:23; Deuteronomy 4:22; Deuteronomy 19:4,6; Isaiah 11:9; Isaiah 14:2 (Dr§ 135, 7 Obs.); מלך לְ Numbers 22:4; רַב לָכֶם it is (too) much to you, מְעַט לְ (too) little to . . .; in the phrase מִי (מָהׅ אֵלֶּה לְךָ who (what) are these to thee ? = what meanest thou by these things ? Genesis 33:5,8; 2 Samuel 16:2; Ezekiel 37:18, compare Exodus 12:26; Joshua 4:6; Ezekiel 12:22; חלילה לי away be it to (or for) me ! למה לי to what purpose to me is . . . ? Genesis 27:46; Isaiah 1:11; Jeremiah 6:20; Job 30:2: often also in such phrases as מָגֵן לְ a shield to Genesis 15:1; Psalm 18:31, a strength to Psalm 28:8, an abomination to Genesis 43:32; Isaiah 1:13 +, a grief to Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 17:21; compare Jeremiah 15:10; Malachi 2:9; Psalm 89:28 etc.: note also Jonah 3:3 לאלהים עיר גדולה a city great to God (i.e. in his estimation: compare Acts 7:20 ἀστεῖος τῷ θεῷ, and לפני Genesis 10:9), Esther 10:3. And with כְּ Judges 17:11; 2 Samuel 12:3 וַתְּהִי לוֺ כְּבַת, Exodus 22:24 (compare 4b), Amos 9:7 כבני כֻשִׁיים אַתֶּם לי Hosea 11:4; Isaiah 29:2; Job 33:6 הֵןאֲֿנִי לָאֵל כְּפִיךָ lo, I am to God as thou art, etc.
b. denoting possession, belonging to; — (a) as predicate, in הָיָה לְ (compare Latin est mihi), יֵשׁ לְ אֵין לְ constantly (see these words); also alone, as Genesis 31:16,43 לִי הוּא it is mine, Genesis 48:5 לי הם, Exodus 19:5b כי לי כל הארץ, 1 Kings 20:3,4; Isaiah 43:1 לי אתה, Isaiah 44:5 אני ׳לי, Ezekiel 29:3; Psalm 47:10; Psalm 50:10; Psalm 50:12; Job 12:13,16; Songs 2:16; Songs 6:3; 1 Samuel 1:2 ולו שׁתי נשׁים and he had two wives, 1 Samuel 25:7,36; Judges 3:16; Judges 17:5; Job 22:8; 2 Samuel 17:18; Hosea 6:10, + often; with לאֹ, 1 Kings 22:17; Isaiah 53:2 לא הדר לו, Jeremiah 5:10 +; with a neuter adjective (rare) Isaiah 63:2; Jeremiah 30:10 אָנוּשׁ לְשִׁבְרֵךְ; note also such phrases as 2 Kings 10:19 זבח גדול לי לבעל, Isaiah 2:12 ׳כִּי יוֺם לי ׳על וג for ׳י hath a day against etc., Isaiah 22:5; Isaiah 28:2 ׳הִנֵּה חָזָק וְאַמִּץ לי ׳י hath a strong and mighty one (that is, at his disposal), Isaiah 34:2 ׳על וג׳קצף לי, Isaiah 34:6 b. 8; Hosea 4:1 . . . עם ׳כִּי רִיב לי, Hosea 12:3; Micah 6:2: מַהלִּֿי וָלָךְ what is there to me and to thee (?) (i.e. what have we to do with each other (?)), see שׁלום לך מָה peace be to thee ! Of that which pertains to one as a right, Leviticus 25:31,48; Deuteronomy 1:17 כי המשׁפט לאלהים הוא, Deuteronomy 21:17; 1 Samuel 17:47; Jeremiah 10:23; Jeremiah 32:7,8; Ezekiel 21:32; Psalm 3:9 הישׁועה ׳לי, Jonah 2:10; with an infinitive 1 Samuel 23:20 וְלָנוּ הַסְגִּירוֺ and it shall be for us (or our place) to deliver him, Micah 3:1 הלא לכם לדעת, Ezra 4:3; 2Chronicles 13:5; 20:17; 26:18, compare Psalm 50:16 מַהלְּֿךָ לְ. (b) here also belongs the so-called Lamed auctoris, Isaiah 38:9 מִכְתָּב לְחִזְקִיָּהוּ a writing belonging to, of, or by H., Habakkuk 3:1; Psalm 3:1 and often מזמור לדוד a Psalm of or by David (but possibly denoting originally, at least in some cases, a Psalm belonging to a collection known as David's: so certainly in לבני קרח Psalm 42:1 and elsewhere, and probably also in לאסף Psalm 50:1 and elsewhere); so לדוד מזמור Psalm 24:1 +, לדוד alone Psalm 10:1; Psalm 14:1 +. compare on Phoenician coins לצדנם of the Sidonians, i.e. belonging to them, לצור (= Greek Σιδονιων, Τύρου). Hebrew idiom also uses the ל of possession where we should write the simple name, as Ezekiel 38:16 (written on a stick) ליהּודה, Ezekiel 38:17 ליוסף, in English 'Judah,' 'Joseph,' Isaiah 8:1 למהרשֿׁללחֿשׁבֿז 'Maher-shalal-hash-baz.'
c. as periph. for the stative with — (a) אשׁר לְ, as Exodus 29:29; Exodus 39:1,39; Leviticus 7:20,21; Leviticus 16:6,15 (see further examples below אשׁר
7); so שֶׁלִּי Songs 1:6; Songs 8:12, שֶׁלָּנוּ 2 Kings 6:11. (b) without אשׁר — (a) where it is desired to keep the first noun indeterm., 1 Samuel 16:18 ראיתי בן לישׁי a son to or of Jesse, 1 Samuel 22:20; Genesis 41:12; Numbers 1:4; Numbers 7:24; 1 Kings 2:39 שׁני עבדים לשׁמעי, 1 Kings 18:22; 2 Kings 3:11; Ruth 2:1 etc.; (β) where the Genitive is a compound term, to avoid a series of nouns in the stative with Numbers 1:4 ראשׂ לבית אבותיו, Numbers 7:24,30,36 etc., Numbers 1:21 פקֻדיהם למטה ראובן Numbers 1:23; Numbers 1:25 etc., Numbers 2:9,16 etc., Joshua 21:38; 1 Chronicles 9:23 ׳הַשְּׁעָרִים לְבֵית י 1 Chronicles 27:3 הראשׁ לְ, 2 Chronicles 19:11; Nehemiah 10:39 etc., occas. also besides, as 1 Samuel 14:16 הצופים לשׁאול, Exodus 31:7 (usually ארון העדות); (γ) where the regens is a proper name, or a compound term, which does not readily admit of being placed in the stative with as (יהודה) דברי הימים למלכי ישׂראל 1 Kings 14:19,29 + often, 1 Kings 5:30 שׂרי הנצבים לְ, 2 Kings 11:4 שׂרי המאות לְ ראשׁי האבות לְ Numbers 36:1; Joshua 19:51; 1 Chronicles 8:13 #NAME? Nehemiah Ezra; in dates, as באחד לחדשׁ Genesis 8:5,14; Exodus 12:3,6; Genesis 7:11 בשׁנת ֗֗֗ לחיי נח, Genesis 16:3; Exodus 19:1 . . . בחדשׁ השׁלישׁי לצאת בשׁנת שׁתים לאסא 1 Kings 15:25,28; 1 Kings 16:8 (all + often); other cases, Exodus 20:5,6; Leviticus 13:48; Numbers 16:22 ( = Numbers 27:16) Numbers 18:15; Judges 20:10; 2 Kings 5:9; Ezekiel 45:19; Ruth 2:3; 1 Chronicles 4:43; 1 Chronicles 9:19,21; 1 Chronicles 26:19; 2Chronicles 22:10; 23:4; (δ) with a negative, Genesis 15:13 כארץ לא לכם, Jeremiah 5:19; Proverbs 26:17; Habakkuk 1:6, poetic even alone, Habakkuk 2:6 who increaseth לֹא לוֺ (that which is) not his, Job 18:15 בְּלִי לוֺ, Job 39:16 לְאֹלָהּ as (
4) those which are not hers; (ε) in poetry, Isaiah 16:2; Isaiah 26:7 ארח לצדיק Jeremiah 47:3; Hosea 9:6; Psalm 37:16; Psalm 49:14; Psalm 55:19 (Hi De Ch), Psalm 58:5; Psalm 73:6; Psalm 105:36; Psalm 116:15 המותה לחסידיו, Psalm 123:4; Jonah 2:3; Ecclesiastes 5:11; compare also מלך לְ Joshua 12:18 (but see ᵐ5 Di), 2 Kings 19:13 (compare Aramaic Ezra 5:11): see further Ew§ 292, Ges§ 129, Gies§ 19.
c. attached to adverbs, especially those compounded with מִן, it forms prepositions, as מִקֶּדֶם לְ Genesis 3:24 literally off the front with reference to (or of) = in front of: so מִבֵּית לְ = within, מִחוּץ לְ = without, מִמַּעַל לְ, מֵעַל לְ,מֵעֵבֶר לְ, מֵהָֽלְאָה לְ, מִצְּפוֺן לְ, סָבִֹיב לְ (all often); more rarely, מֵאַחֲרֵי לְ, מִבַּעַד לְ, מִבֵּינוֺת לְ, אֶל בֵּינוֺת לְ, מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה לְ Exodus 38:15, הֵנָּה לְ, Daniel 12:5 (twice in verse), מִזְרָח לְ, מִימִין לְ, מִנֶּגֶד לְ, מִסָּבִיב לְ, תַּחַת לְ, in poetry נֶגְדָּהנָּֿא לְ, Psalm 116:14; Psalm 116:18. see בית, חוץ, etc.; and compare Judges 7:1,8.
d. construed with passive verbs, the ל of reference notifies the agent, as בָּרוּךְ לְ blessed by, Genesis 14:17 + often; otherwise not very common, Genesis 14:17 + often; otherwise not very common, Genesis 31:15 נֶחְשַׁב לְ to be reckoned by (so Isaiah 40:17), Exodus 12:16 אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָלנֶֿפֶשׁ חוּא לְבַדּוֺ, יֵעָשֶׂה לָכם, 1 Samuel 2:3; 1 Samuel 25:7; 2 Samuel 19:43; Jeremiah 8:3 נִבְחַר לְ (Proverbs 21:3), Proverbs 29:22 Psalm 73:10; Psalm 111:2; Proverbs 13:13 יֵחָבֶללֿוֺ is pledged by it, Proverbs 14:20; Nehemiah 6:1,7 נִשְׁמַע לְ, Nehemiah 13:26 אָהוּב לְ, Esther 4:3; Esther 5:12; Ecclesiastes 5:12 שָׁמוּר לְ. So with נִרְאָה Exodus 13:7 ( = Deuteronomy 16:4), נוֺדַע 1 Samuel 6:3; Ezekiel 36:32; Nehemiah 4:9 (but usually with these words לְ is rather the dativus commodi [dative of benefit] be known, appear, to), נעתר Genesis 25:21 +, נדרשׁ and נמצא Isaiah 65:1 #NAME?entreated, sought, found, by, נוֺסַר Leviticus 26:23, נענה Ezekiel 14:4,7 (?). (compare in Syriac Nö§ 247, especially with passive participle:§ 279 (so Talmud, Luz§ 90), which in Mandean and New Syriac even unites with the ל to form a new tense, see NöM § 263; NS § 104.) Analogously Genesis 38:15 וַתַּהַר לוֺ and was pregnant by, Genesis 38:18 הָרָה לְ (adjective) pregnant by (literally to).
e. regarding, in respect of, namely (a) with verbs of speaking, commanding, hearing, etc.; concerning, about (synonym עַל, which is more usually); so with אָמַר Genesis 20:13; Deuteronomy 33:12,13 + Judges 9:54; Isaiah 41:7; Psalm 3:3; Psalm 41:6 +, דִּבֶּר Ezekiel 44:5, סִמֵּר Psalm 22:31, דרשׁ Deuteronomy 12:30; 2 Samuel 11:3, חָלַם Genesis 42:9, הִטִּיף Micah 2:6, צִוָּה Numbers 8:20; Psalm 91:11 +, שָׁמַע Genesis 17:20, and often in the adjunct . . . לכל אשׁר ֗֗֗ לאשׁר Genesis 27:8; Joshua 1:18; Joshua 22:2 +; שׁאל Genesis 26:7 +, especially in phrase לְשָׁלוֺם ׳שׁאל לפ to ask about any one with reference to (his) welfare; in the phrase לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה in regard to this thing (idiomatic), Genesis 19:21; 1 Samuel 30:24 +, Judges 21:5,7 לנשׁים, 1 Kings 20:7; without a verb, Leviticus 7:37; Leviticus 14:54; Deuteronomy 33:7, and in titles Jeremiah 23:9; Jeremiah 46:2; Jeremiah 48:1; Jeremiah 49:1,7,23,28. (b) limiting the application of a term, especially with כְּ to denote the tertium comparationis, as Genesis 41:19 לאֹ רָאִיתִי כָהֵנָּה ֗֗֗ לָרֹעַ as regards, in respect of (in our idiom, simply in or for) badness, Exodus 24:10 כְּעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר in brightness, Deuteronomy 34:11,12; Ezekiel 3:3 (read לְמֹתֶק) Proverbs 25:3; 1 Chronicles 24:4; with an infinitive, Genesis 3:22 היה כאחד ממנו לדעת in respect of knowing etc., Genesis 34:15; Isaiah 21:1 כַּסּוּפוֺת לַחֲלוֺף as whirlwinds in respect of sweeping through, Joshua 10:14; 2 Samuel 14:17,25; Ezekiel 38:9,16; Proverbs 26:2 כצפור לָנוּד כדרור לָעוּף, 1 Chronicles 12:9 כצבאים לְמַהֵר; with לָרֹב in multitude, Deuteronomy 1:10 ככוכבי השׁמים לרב Judges 7:12 (twice in verse) + often; less frequently in comparisons with מִן, 1 Kings 10:23 וַיִּגְדַּל ֗֗֗ מִכֹּל ֗֗֗ לְעשֶׁר וּלְחָכְמָה, Songs 1:2; Job 30:1 צעירים ממני לימים (compare the accusative Job 15:10), Job 32:4,6, compare Job 11:6 כִּפְלַיִם לְתוּשִׁיָּה; rarely after substantives, 2 Chronicles 16:8; 21:3; 3:8 לְכִכָּרִים, 2 Chronicles 3:9; 2 Chronicles 3:11; Ezra 8:26 (where the earlier language would use apposition, or the accusative of specification, Dr§ 194). (c) somewhat differently, Leviticus 5:4b and be guilty לְאַחַת מֵאֵלָּה as regards one of these things, Leviticus 5:5; Leviticus 22:5b; Numbers 18:7 (compare 1 Chronicles 26:32; 1 Chronicles 27:1; 2Chronicles 19:11 (twice in verse)) Jeremiah 2:37 (peculiar) thou shalt not prosper להם as regards them, Ezekiel 44:14, compare Job 9:19; after substantive Genesis 47:26 לַחֹמֶשׁ (but compare ᵐ5 Di) with reference to the fifth, Leviticus 7:26; Leviticus 11:46b Numbers 19:11; Numbers 29:39; Numbers 30:13; Deuteronomy 19:15; Deuteronomy 23:19; Ezra 8:34; 1 Chronicles 27:1 (׳לכל ח), 2 Chronicles 8:15; Nehemiah 11:24. (d) לְכָלֿׅ לְכֹל ֗֗֗ ), at the close of a description or enumeration, with a Generalizing force, as regards all . . . = namely, in brief (Ew§ 310 a ), chiefly in P and Chronicles (probably a juristic usage): Genesis 9:10b all that go out of the ark לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ as regards ( = namely, even) all beasts of the earth, Genesis 23:10b; Exodus 14:28 (compare Exodus 14:9 וְ), Exodus 27:3,19; Exodus 28:38; Exodus 30:1b; Leviticus 5:3,4 (compare Leviticus 13:51) Leviticus 11:42; Leviticus 16:16,21; Leviticus 22:18; Numbers 3:26b (Numbers 3:31 Numbers 3:36 וְ), Numbers 4:27,31,32; Numbers 5:9; Numbers 18:4,8,9,11 (all P), 2 Kings 12:6; Jeremiah 19:13; Ezekiel 44:9; 1 Chronicles 13:1; 2Chronicles 5:12 (לְכֻלָּם), 2 Chronicles 25:5; 31:16; 33:8 b ("" 2 Kings 21:8 ולכל) Ezra 1:5. (e) introducing a new subject (rare, and text sometimes dubious; chiefly Chronicles), as regards . . ., Isaiah 32:1 ולשׂרים (read probably וְשָׂרִים ל by error from following למשׁפט), Leviticus 11:26; 1 Chronicles 3:2 (read probably אבשׁלום), 1 Chronicles 5:2 ( ? see Ke), 1 Chronicles 7:1 (Ke ובני), 1 Chronicles 7:5 a (?), 1 Chronicles 24:1; 1 Chronicles 26:1,23,25,26,31 a B 2 Chronicles 5:12; 7:21 לְכָלע־ֹבֵר עליו ישׁרק ("" 1 Kings 9:8 כָּלעֹֿבֵר), compare Deuteronomy 24:5 (peculiar); Ecclesiastes 9:4 בִּי לְכֶלֶב חַי הוא ׳טוב וג; compare Psalm 17:4 (on Psalm 16:3 see Commentaries). In Chronicles sometimes used peculiarly as a periphrase, 1 Chronicles 28:1 b. 21 לכל נדיב as regards every liberal man = every liberal man (compare Ke), 1 Chronicles 29:5 a. 6 b; compare Ezra 6:7 (Aramaic), Ezra 7:28.
f. in connection with terms designating a cause or occasion, with referenceto or in view of (German auf. . .hin) becomes nearly equivalent to on account of, through (not common): so to cut oneself לָנֶפֶשׁ Leviticus 19:28 on account of a (dead) person, Deuteronomy 14:1; Jeremiah 16:6b, Leviticus 11:24 לְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּ֑אוּ on account of these ye shall become unclean, Leviticus 21:1,2,3 +, Ezekiel 20:31 נִטְמָא לְ, Numbers 5:2 כָּלטָֿמֵא לָנֶפֶשׁ Numbers 9:6,7,10, compare 2Chronicles 23:19; ׳לְשֵׁם י in view of (i.e. determined by), because of ׳יs name, Joel 2 Chronicles 9:9; Jeremiah 3:17; Isaiah 55:5 ("" לְמַעַן), Ezekiel 36:22 (do.); Genesis 4:23 a I have slain a man לְפִצְעִי because of my wound, Genesis 4:23 b Exodus 4:26 לַמּוּלוֺת, Numbers 35:33 לַדָּם לָכֵן = therefore (synonym עַל כֵּן), constantly (see כֵּן); Job 30:24 (si vera lectio) לָהֶן: of the cause of an emotion, Isaiah 15:5 לִבִּי לְמוֺאָב יִזְעַק because of Moab Isaiah 16:7,11; Jeremiah 31:20 הָמוּ מֵעַי לוֺ (עַלּ Songs 5:4), Hosea 10:5, לְזֹאת Job 37:1. compare Numbers 16:34 נסו לקולם fled at the sound of them, Ezekiel 27:28; Habakkuk 3:16; Psalm 42:8.
g. marking the aim, object, or consequence of an action or thing, in view of, for, unto: (a) Genesis 1:16 לממשׁלת היום for the rule of the day, Genesis 22:7 where is the sheep לְעוֺלָה? Genesis 42:25 provision לַדָּ֑רֶךְ for the way; Exodus 20:7 לַשָּׁוְא i.e. for a vain or frivolous purpose, similarly לָרִיק and לַשֶּׁקֶר; Leviticus 1:3 + לִרְצֹּנוֺ for his acceptance; Numbers 21:23 and often יצא למלחמה for battle; יָשַׁב לְ to sit (wait) for, Exodus 24:14; Hosea 3:3; Jeremiah 3:2; 1 Samuel 8:16 to use לִמְלַאכְתּוֺ for his business; 2 Samuel 15:2 + בָּא לַמִּשְׁמָּט for judgment; Psalm 69:22 לִצְמָאִי for (i.e. to quench) my thirst, Nehemiah 9:15; Exodus 29:36 + לַיּוֺם for each day; Isaiah 4:3 כָּלכָּֿתוכ לַחַיִּים for life; Hosea 9:4 לַחְמָם לְנַפְשָׁם; לרעה and לטובה Jeremiah 21:10 +; Isaiah 58:4; Psalm 63:10 ׃לְשׁוֺאָה יבקשׁו נפשׁי in the sense of to secure, compass, Genesis 41:55 cried to Phoenician לַלָּ֑חֶם for bread, 1 Samuel 2:36; Amos 8:11; Job 15:23; Isaiah 10:3: so in לִמַעַן for the purpose of; and with an infinitive often (see
7a). (b) corresponding to the Latin dativus commodi [dative of benefit], (a) with verbs, Genesis 2:18 אעשׂה לו I will make for him, etc., Genesis 2:20; Genesis 3:21, etc., absolute עָשָׂה לְ 1 Samuel 14:6; Isaiah 64:3, מָּעַל לְ Psalm 68:29; מָצָא לְ Genesis 8:9; לָקַח לְ Genesis 24:3,4 + often; סָפַד לְ, נוּד Jeremiah 16:5,6, בָּכָה לְ Jeremiah 22:10, etc.; Judges 16:25 וִישַׂחֶקלָֿנוּ to sport for us (for our pleasure); Hosea 2:25; Micah 5:1, etc.; with a pronoun of the same person as the verb, as 1 Kings 20:34 תשׂים לך, 2 Kings 6:7; 2 Kings 10:24; Zechariah 9:13, leading on to
h a, below; often with pronouns and imperative, Numbers 11:16 אֶסְפָהלִּֿי gather me70men, Numbers 22:6 אָרָהלִּֿי curse me this people, Numbers 23:1 בְּנֵה לִי, 1 Kings 1:28 קראו לי לבתשֿׁבע call me B., 1 Kings 3:24; 1 Kings 13:13; 1 Kings 17:10; Songs 2:15 אֶחֱזוּ לָנוּ catch us the foxes, Isaiah 49:20 גְּשָׁהלִּֿי retire for me, that I may dwell, 2 Samuel 18:5 לְאַט לִי לַנַּעַר (act) Gently (
5i b) for my sake towards the young man, 2 Kings 4:24 אַלתַּֿעֲצָרלִֿי לִרְכֹּב AV slacken me not the riding; (β) with substantives, e.g. in such phrases as פסח ׳הוא לי Exodus 12:11 a passover is it unto ׳י, Exodus 13:6 ׳חַג לי, Exodus 16:25 ׳שַׁבָּת לי, Isaiah 23:18 + ׳קֹדֶשׁ לי, Leviticus 1:9 and often ׳אִשֵּׂה רֵיחַ נִיחוֺחַ לי, 1 Samuel 1:3 ׳כהנים לי, etc.; (γ) also as a dativus incommodi [dative of harm], as to lie in wait, lay snares, dig a pit, etc., for any one, Judges 9:25; Judges 16:2; Psalm 35:7; Psalm 57:7 etc.; with verbs of withholding or removing (rare), Judges 17:2 לֻקַּח לָךְ 1 Samuel 21:6 (compare ) Psalm 40:11; Psalm 84:12; Job 12:20; note also the phrase לָכַד הַמַּיִם (הַמַּעְבָּרוֺת) לְ Judges 3:28 (RV), Judges 7:24; Judges 12:5: זכר ל, in both senses, to remember for (in one's favour) Jeremiah 2:2 +, against Psalm 137:7 +, compare גער לְ Malachi 3:11; and Malachi 2:3. (c) more distinctly on behalf of, as with קִנֵּא to be jealous for, Numbers 11:29 +, נִלְחַם Deuteronomy 3:22 +, שָׁמֶר Deuteronomy 7:12 +, רָב לְ to contend for Judges 6:31, יָרֵא Joshua 9:24, הִתְמַּלֵּל 1 Samuel 2:25 +, דִּבֶּר to speak for one 2 Kings 4:13; Job 13:7 תְּדַבְּרוּ עַוְלָה הַלְאֵל will ye speak wickedness on God's behalf ? שָׁאַל to ask 1 Samuel 22:13 +, עָבַר to pass over for ( = to pardon) Amos 7:8; Deuteronomy 30:12 מי יעלה לנו, Deuteronomy 30:13; Judges 1:1; Judges 20:18; Isaiah 6:8 מִי יֵלֶךְלָֿנוּ; see also Exodus 2:19; Exodus 4:16 a Numbers 35:31; Deuteronomy 23:6; Joshua 18:6; Judges 5:13; Judges 7:4,20; 2 Samuel 15:34b Isaiah 33:21; Proverbs 16:26; Proverbs 31:8, etc.; Psalm 94:16 מִי יָקוּם לִי עִם מְרֵעִים; ׳היה ל to be on one's side, Hosea 1:9 ואנכי לא אהיה לכם, Psalm 124:1; Psalm 124:2, and without היה Genesis 31:42; Exodus 32:36, אֵלַי ׳מִי ל who is on ׳יs side ? (let him come) to me ! Joshua 5:13b 2 Samuel 20:11; 2 Kings 10:6 אִם לִי אַתֶּם (synonym אִתִּי 2 Kings 9:32), Psalm 56:10 לי ׳זה ידעתי כי י, Psalm 118:6; Psalm 118:7 לִי ׳י.
h. used reflexively (the 'ethical' dative, or dative of feeling), throwing the action back upon the subject, and expressing with some pathos the interest, or satisfaction, or completeness, with which it is (or is to be) accomplished, especially (but not exclusively) with imperative and I person imperfect (often not expressible in English, sometimes to be expressed by a paraphrase); — (a) with transitive verbs (a choice idiom, a development of
g b a, common, especially with imperative, in best prose), עֲשֵׂה לְךָ Genesis 6:14; Numbers 21:8 + often, עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם Deuteronomy 4:16,23; Deuteronomy 9:16; Amos 5:26, וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם Genesis 3:7; Exodus 32:31; Hosea 13:2; Jeremiah 11:17 the evil which עשׂו להם they have loved to do (compare Hi), Genesis 11:4; Judges 3:16; 2 Samuel 15:1, etc.; קַחלְֿךָ, קְחוּ לָכֶם Genesis 6:21 + often, ויקח לו Genesis 15:10, etc.; בָּזַז לוֺ Deuteronomy 2:35; Deuteronomy 20:14 +; תְּנוּ לָכֶם Exodus 7:9; Joshua 20:2; הָבוּ לָכֶם Deuteronomy 1:13 (compare Dr) +, שִׂימוּ לָכֶם Judges 19:30, compare 2 Kings 10:24; Hosea 2:2; בָּחַר לוֺ, בַּחֲרוּ לָכֶם, etc Genesis 13:11; 2 Samuel 17:1 ᵐ5 (see Dr) + often; קְנֵה לְךָ Jeremiah 32:7 +, דַּע לְךָ Job 5:27, compare Songs 1:8; Deuteronomy 10:1 (twice in verse); Deuteronomy 16:9,13,18; Deuteronomy 19:2,3,9, Joshua 22:23 לִבְנוֺת לָנוּ, 1 Samuel 20:20 לְשַׁלַּח לִי לְמַטָּרָה, 2 Kings 4:3 שַׁאֲלִי לָךְ (compare Isaiah 7:11), Isaiah 18:23; Isaiah 44:7 יַגִּידוּ לָמוֺ, Isaiah 59:8 עִקְּשׁוּ לָהֶם, Jeremiah 2:13; Jeremiah 22:14 אֶבְנֶהלִּֿי, Jeremiah 31:21; Jeremiah 46:14; Hosea 10:1 מְּרִי יְשַׁוֶּהלּֿוֺ maketh fruit freely, Hosea 10:11; Hosea 10:12; Hosea 10:12; Amos 6:5,13; Psalm 44:11 שָׁסוּ לָמוֺ = plunder at their will, Psalm 64:6; Psalm 83:13; Proverbs 1:22; Ecclesiastes 8:12 מַאֲרִיךְ לוֺ (denoting satisfaction), Job 7:3 הָנְחַלְתִּי לִי, Job 12:11 יִטְעַם לוֺ, Job 13:1 וַתָּבֶןלָֿהּ, Job 24:16, etc.: rarely separated from the verb, Hosea 12:9; Proverbs 23:20; Job 3:14. (b) with verbs of motion, Genesis 12:1; Genesis 22:2 לֶךְלְֿךָ get thee away, Genesis 27:43 בְרַח לְךָ Amos 7:12; Numbers 22:34 אשׁובה לי literally I will return for myself, Deuteronomy 1:7 (compare Dr) סְעוּ לָכֶם, Deuteronomy 1:40; Deuteronomy 2:13 עברו לכם, Deuteronomy 5:27 שׁובו לכם, 1 Samuel 22:5; 1 Samuel 26:11 וְנֵָֽלְכָה לָנוּ, 1 Samuel 26:12 וַיֵּלְכוּ לָהֶם, 2 Samuel 2:21 נְטֵה לְךָ, 2 Samuel 2:22; 1 Kings 17:3; Isaiah 31:8 נָס לוֺ, Isaiah 40:9 עֲלִי לָךְ Jeremiah 5:5 ֵאלְכָה לִי, Hosea 8:9 a wild ass כֹּדֵד לוֺ going alone at its pleasure, Micah 1:11; Psalm 58:8 כמים יתהלכו למו that run apace, Proverbs 20:14 אֹזֵל לִוֺ = goeth his way, Job 39:4; Songs 1:8; b Songs 2:10,11,13; Songs 4:6. (c) with neuter verbs, especially those signifying a state of mind or feeling (chiefly in poetry), Psalm 66:7 אל ירומו למו, Psalm 80:7 ילעגו למו mock as they please, Psalm 120:6 רַבַּת שָֽׁכְנָה לָהּ נַפְשִׁי has had her dwelling with, etc., Psalm 122:3 שֶׁחֻבְּרָה לָהּ is well compacted, Psalm 123:4 שָֽׂבְעָה לָהּ is but too full, Isaiah 2:22 חִדְלוּ לָכֶם, 2 Chronicles 25:16; 35:21; Jeremiah 7:4 אַלתִּֿבְטְחוּ לָכֶם, Jeremiah 7:8; 2 Kings 18:21; Ezekiel 37:11 נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ we are quite cut off, Job 6:19 קִוּוּ לָמוֺ (implying that they fed themselves on hope), Job 15:28 יֵ שְׁבוּ לָמוֺ which should not sit (be inhabited), Job 19:29 גּוּרוּ לָכֶם, Songs 2:17; Songs 8:14 דְּמֵה לְךָ, and the frequent הִשָּׁמֶרלְֿךָ take heed to thyself Genesis 24:6 +; with an adjective, Amos 2:13 הַמְּלֵאָה לָהּ עָמִיר. (compare Ew§ 315 a. Very common in Syriac, especially b: Nö§ 224.)
i. of reference to a norm or standard, according to, after, by: — (a) Genesis 1:11 #NAME?לְמִינוֺ according to its kinds, Genesis 8:19 + לְמִשְׁמְּחֹתֵיהֶם according to their families, Genesis 10:5 נִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֺ, Genesis 10:31; Genesis 10:32, Exodus 30:12 + לִפְפְקֻדֵיהֶם according to them that are numbered of them, Numbers 1:2 לְבֵית אֲבוֺתָם by their fathers' houses, Numbers 1:2 לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם Numbers 1:3 לְצִבְאֹתָם, Numbers 1:20 + often, especially in enumerations and classifications; Genesis 13:3 Abram went לְמַסָּעָיו by his journeyings (stages), so לְמַסְעֵיהֶם Exodus 17:1 +; Genesis 13:17 go through the land לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ according to (i.e. to the full extent of) its length and breadth (compare Habakkuk 1:6); Hab 41:47 לִקְמָצִים by handfuls, Numbers 24:2 + לִשְׁבָטָיו by its tribes, 1 Samuel 29:2 עברים למאות ולאלפים by hundreds and thousands, 2 Samuel 18:4, לְעָרֶיהָ Numbers 32:33; Joshua 18:9; Judges 19:19 לַעֲצָמֶיהָ according to her bones (i.e. limb by limb), Ezekiel 24:6 לִנְתָחֶיהָ piece by piece; Psalm 140:12 to hunt לְמַדְחֵפוֺת thrust-wise, with thrust upon thrust, Isaiah 27:12 לְאַחַד אֶחָד (Ges Ew) by one, one (i.e. one by one); hence, especially with plurals, it acquires sometimes a distributive force, as לִבְקָרִים Isaiah 33:2 by mornings = every morning (compare
6), so לַבְּקָרִים Psalm 73:14; Psalm 101:8 +, לִרְגָעִים Isaiah 27:3 + every moment, לֶחֳדָשִׁים Isaiah 47:13 every month, Ezekiel 47:12; 1 Kings 10:22 אַחַת לְשָׁלוֺשׁ שָׁנִים once every three years, Amos 4:4 לשׁלשׁת ימים every three days (but see We), 1 Chronicles 9:25; in Chronicles לשׁער ושׁער לעיר ועיר, 2 Chronicles 8:14; 19:5; 26:11. (b) denoting the principle, with regard to which an act is done, לְמִסְמַּר according to the number of . . . Deuteronomy 32:8; Judges 21:23 +, Isaiah 11:3 to judge לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו according to that which his eyes see, his ears hear (compare Leviticus 13:12; Job 42:5), Job 28:26; Job 32:1 a king will regin לְצֶדֶק according to justice ("" לְמשׁפט), Job 42:3 לֶאֱמֶת = faithfully, Jeremiah 9:2 לֶאֱמוּנָה = honestly, Jeremiah 15:15; Jeremiah 30:11 (= Jeremiah 46:28) וְיִסַּרְתִּיךָ לַמִּשְׁמָּט (synonym Jeremiah 10:24 בְּמשׁפט), Hosea 2:12 ("" לְפִי), Joel 2:23 לִצֶדָקָה; Genesis 38:24 pregnant לִזְנוּנִים = unchastely, Numbers 15:24 לשׁגגה by error (elsewhere בשׁגגה), 2 Chronicles 30:3; 35:8; Songs 7:10 flowing down למישׁרים straightly (Proverbs 23:31 ׳ב), לָרֹב Job 26:3; 2Chron 14:14, in poetry לְמַכְבִּיר Job 36:31 in abundance, לְאַט = gently 2 Samuel 18:5 +; Exodus 16:3; Psalm 78:25 לָשׂבַע according to satiety; לְרֶגֶל according to the foot (pace) of Genesis 33:14 + (see רֶגֶל); 1 Samuel 23:20 לְכָלאַֿוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ (Deuteronomy 12:15 and elsewhere ׳בְּ), 2 Samuel 15:11 לְתֻמָּם according to their simplicity, i.e. unsuspectingly (so 1 Kings 22:34), 1 Kings 9:11 לְכָלחֶֿפְצוֺ, Isaiah 54:16; Ezekiel 22:6 לִזְרֹעוֺ, Job 12:5; Psalm 119:91; Psalm 119:154 לְאִמְִרתְךָ ("" ׳כְּ Psalm 119:58; Psalm 119:116; Psalm 119:170), Ecclesiastes 1:10 long ago לְעולמים according to (measured by) the ages etc. (see Hi): so also in the phrase לְפִי חֶרֶב according to a sword's mouth, i.e. as the sword would devour, without quarter, Joshua 6:21 + often; לְפִי ֗֗֗ itself also, in various figurative applications, has the force of according to, Genesis 47:12, etc. (see מֶּה); and in יֵשׁ (אֵין) לְאֵל יָדְךָ it is (not) according to the power of thy hand. Similarly Deuteronomy 11:11 לִמְטַר הַשָּׁמַיִם after the manner of the rain of heaven, i.e. as the rain permits (opposed to the artificial irrigation of Deuteronomy 11:10), Judges 21:12 + לְמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר, Ezekiel 12:12 לַעַיִן i.e. as the eye sees it.
j. designating a condition or state: לָבֶטַח in a state of confidence = confidently, Leviticus 25:18 + often; לְבָדָד, לְבַד, in a state of separation ( = a part), so לְבַדּוֺ (see pp. 94, 95); לְשָׁלוֺם Genesis 44:17 +, לְפֶתַע suddenly Isaiah 29:5; Isaiah 30:13; לִבְלִי in a condition of no . . . = without, Isaiah 5:14 + (see בלי), so לְאֵין ֗֗֗ (late), לְלֹא2Chronicles 15:3; further Isaiah 1:5 לָחֳלִי in a state of sickness, Isaiah 50:11 לְמַעֲצֵבָה, Psalm 45:15 לִרְקָמוֺת, Ezra 2:63 = Nehemiah 7:65 a priest לאורים ולתמים having relation to (i.e. with) Urim and Thummim, 2 Chronicles 20:21 לְהַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ = in holy adornment (compare ׳בְּ Psalm 29:2; Psalm 96:9). And of a concomitant circumstance (German bei), in presence of, at, Job 29:3 לְאוֺרוֺ, Habakkuk 3:11, לקול ֗֗֗ Job 21:12; Ezra 3:13.
6 Of time:
a. towards, against, sometimes with collateral idea of in view of, much rarer than בְּ, but expressing concurrence (at) rather than duration (in): Genesis 3:8 לְרוּחַ הַיּוֺם at the breeze of the day, לְעֵת in various connections, as לְעֵת עֶרֶב Genesis 8:11 + (see עֵת); לְעִתִּים מְזֻמָּנִים Ezra 10:14; Nehemiah 10:35; לְעִתּוֺת בַּצָּרָה Psalm 9:10; Psalm 10:1; לְיוֺם ֗֗֗ at, on the day of, Psalm 81:4; Proverbs 7:20 +, מה תעשׂו לְיוֺם ֗֗֗ Isaiah 10:3; Hosea 9:5 (compare Jeremiah 5:31); לַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר ֗֗֗ Ezekiel 22:14; לַיּוֺם אֲשֶׁר ֗֗֗ Malachi 3:17; לתשׁובת השׁנה 2 Samuel 11:1 +; לתקופת הימים 1 Samuel 1:20, לתקופת השׁנה2Chronicles 24:23 (Exodus 34:22 without לְ), לְקֵץ שָׁנִים (יָמִיםׅ (late) 2 Chronicles 18:2; Nehemiah 13:6; Daniel 11:6,13 (in early Hebrew מִקֵּץ יָמִים); לשׁנת ֗֗֗ 2Chronicles 15:10; לַבֹּקֶר Psalm 30:6; Psalm 49:15 + (Exodus 34:2 after הֱיֵה נָכוֺן = against, for; compare Exodus 19:11; Proverbs 21:31); (לַבְּקָרִים Isaiah 33:2, see 5i); לערב Genesis 49:27 ("" בבקר) +; לְמָחָר Exodus 8:6 (in answer to Exodus 8:5 לְמָתַי), Exodus 8:19; Esther 5:12 (Numbers 11:18; Joshua 7:13 after הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ = against), לַמָּחֳרָת Jonah 4:7 (compare 1 Chronicles 29:21); לָאוֺר Job 24:14; לַמּוֺעֵד, לְמוֺעֵד ֗֗֗ , Genesis 17:21; Exodus 23:15 +; לְפָנִים and לִפְנֵי before (often); לְאָחוֺר hereafter, Isaiah 41:23; Isaiah 42:23; Psalm 32:6 b; with infinitive (rare), in the phrase לִפְנוֺת (הַ)בֹּקֶר (עֶרֶבׅ Genesis 24:63 +, 2 Samuel 18:29; Isaiah 7:15 לְדַעְתּוֺ when he knoweth.
b. to denote the close of a period (rare), Genesis 7:4 לימים עוד שׁבעה, Genesis 7:10; Exodus 19:15; 2 Samuel 13:23; Amos 4:4 לשׁלשׁת ימים (We); Ezra 10:8,9; Nehemiah 6:15; Daniel 12:7 (compare עַד Daniel 7:25) 2Chronicles 21:19 (so Syriac: see PS 5).
c. towards, to, Exodus 34:25 לא ילין לַבֹּקֶר (usually עַד, as Exodus 23:18), Deuteronomy 16:4; 1 Samuel 13:8 (after נוֺחַל), Amos 4:7 בעוד שׁלשׁה חדשׁים לַקָּצִיר to the harvest; often in the expressions לְעוֺלָם, לָנֶצַח, לְדוֺר וָדוֺר, לְדֹר דֹּר; rather differently in מִיּוֺם לְיוֺם Psalm 96:2 ("" 1 Chronicles 16:23 אל), Esther 3:7 (i.e. passing from day to day), compare 2 Samuel 14:26 (Gie30f.).
d. for, during, Isaiah 63:18 לַמִּצְעָר (si vera lectio), 2Chronicles 11:17 לשׁנים שׁלושׁ, 2 Chronicles 29:17.
7 With an infinitive (Ges§ 114, 2), ל denotes
a. most commonly the end or purpose of an action ( = the Latin Gerund with ad, e.g. ad faciendum, to do): Genesis 1:17 and he placed them in the firmament לְהָאִיר וְלִמְשֹׁלוּ֗֗֗לְהַבְדִּיל to give light . . ., and to rule . . ., and todivide, etc., Genesis 2:15 set him in the garden לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ to till it, and to keep it, Genesis 2:9 brought them to Adam לִרְאוֺת to see, etc., + very often; Genesis 19:20 קְרֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁ֑מָּה near for fleeing thither, Ecclesiastes 3:2 עֵת לָלֶדֶת a time for bringing forth. The negative is expressed by לְבִלְתִּי, q. v.
b. with reference to, limiting or qualifying the idea expressed by the principal verb, and so resolvable sometimes into so as to, to, sometimes into in respect of, in: — (a) so as to, to, Deuteronomy 8:6 and keep the commands of ׳לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וּלְיִרְאָה אֹתוֺ י to walk in his ways, and to fear him, Deuteronomy 10:15; Deuteronomy 11:22; Deuteronomy 19:9; 1 Kings 2:3,4; 1 Kings 11:2; 1 Samuel 20:20,36; Joel 2:26 אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה עִמָּכֶם לְהַפְלִיא so as to do wondrously, Ezekiel 5:6; Judges 5:18 עַם חֵרֵף נַפְשׁוֺ לָמוּת so as to die, for dying [not 'unto death'], Judges 16:16; 2 Kings 20:1 חָלָה לָמוּת; Genesis 2:3 לַעֲשׂוֺת so as to make (or in making) which, he created; and in the very frequently לֵאמֹר, introducing the words spoken, so as to say = saying (German indem er sagte), Genesis 1:22, etc. (b) in respect of, in (compare 5e (b)) Genesis 34:7; 1 Samuel 12:17 your evil is great that ye have done לִשְׁאוֺל לכם מלך in asking for yourselves a king, 1 Samuel 12:29; 1 Samuel 14:33 the people sin against J. לאכל עלהֿדם in eating with the blood, 1 Samuel 19:5; 2 Samuel 19:7; 2 Kings 4:24; Jeremiah 44:18; Psalm 36:3; Psalm 63:3; Psalm 78:18; Psalm 101:8; Psalm 103:20; Nehemiah 13:18. And with the tert. compare., above
5e (b). Especially with verbs expressing what with us would be denoted by an adverb adjunct, but in Hebrew idiom forms the principal idea, as 1 Samuel 1:12 הִרְבְּתָה לְהִתְמַּלֵּל literally did much in respect of praying ( = prayed long or much), Isaiah 55:7 כִּי יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֺחַ +; 2 Kings 2:10 הִקְשִׁיתָ לִשְׁאוֺל thou hast done hardly in respect of asking ( = asked a hard thing), 1 Kings 14:9 הֵרַע לַעֲשׂוֺת; so with הקריב Genesis 12:11, מִהַר Genesis 27:20, הרחיק Exodus 8:24 הֶעְמִּיל Numbers 14:44, הֵהִין Deuteronomy 1:41, בּשֵׁשׁ Judges 5:28, הפליא Judges 13:19; 2Chronicles 26:15 (with passive verb), שׁוּב 1 Kings 13:17; Ezra 9:14, היטיב Jeremiah 1:12 + (without לְ 1 Samuel 16:17), העמיק Isaiah 29:15 +, קֵרֵב Ezekiel 36:9, הגדיל Joel 2:20 +, קִדַּמְתִּי לִבְרֹחַ Jonah 4:2, הגביהּ Psalm 113:5, השׁפיל Psalm 113:6; Genesis 31:27 נַחְבֵּאתָ לִבְרֹחַ hast hidden thyself in regard to fleeing = hast fled secretly, 2 Samuel 19:4 וַיִּתְגַּנֵּב לָבוֺא = come in stealthily. (c.) by an extension of (b), the infinitive with לְ so forms the complement of a verb that, if the verb be transitive, it becomes virtually its object: so very often with such verbs as הוסיף to add Genesis 4:2,12, הֵחֵל to begin Genesis 6:1, חדל Genesis 11:8, יכל Genesis 13:6, מִהַר Genesis 18:7, נתן to permit Genesis 20:6, אבה Genesis 24:5, בקשׁ Exodus 2:15, מֵאֵן Exodus 7:14, למד Deuteronomy 14:23, חפץ Deuteronomy 25:8, ידע 1 Kings 5:20 (these all occur also without לְ); הואיל to undertake, consent, Genesis 18:17,31, כִּלָּה to finish, תָּמַם Deuteronomy 2:16 (to come to an end in respect of), קִוָּה Isaiah 5:2; also צִוָּה Genesis 50:2, אָמַר Exodus 2:14, דִּמָּה Numbers 33:56, חשׁב 1 Samuel 18:25, יעץ Psalm 62:5, לִמֵּד Jeremiah 12:16, אָהֵב Hosea 12:8: Deuteronomy 10:12 what doth ׳י ask of thee כי אם ליראה except to fear etc. ? (compare Micah 6:8 after דרשׁ without ל). (d) as the subject of a sentence (rare): Isaiah 10:7 להשׁמיד בלבבו, 1 Chronicles 29:12; with טוב 1 Samuel 15:22; Psalm 118:8; Psalm 118:9; Ecclesiastes 7:2,5; Proverbs 21:9 (usually without לְ, as Proverbs 21:19; Proverbs 25:24; Exodus 14:12); compare Exodus 8:22 לא נכון לעשׂות כן; 2 Samuel 18:11 וְעָלַי לָתֵת, Nehemiah 13:13; Ezra 10:12; Micah 3:1 הלא לכם לדעת, Ezra 4:3; 2Chronicles 13:5; 20:17; 26:18. (e) with יֵשׁ, אֵין (late), and (more rarely) לֹא, in sense of it is (not) possible to . . ., or (sometimes) there is no need to . . . : see יֵשׁ
2c c (p. 442); אַיִן
5 (p. 34 b), adding Haggai 1:6; Esther 8:8; 2Chronicles 22:9; לֹא
1a b (p. 518): and compare Dr§ 202 Ges§ 114l Dav§ 94 b, 95 b. (f) with הָיָה, to express the idea of destination, as Numbers 24:22 וקין יהיה לְבָעֵר shall be for consuming, Deuteronomy 31:17; Isaiah 5:5; Isaiah 6:13; Isaiah 37:26; Ezekiel 30:16; Psalm 109:13 +. compare מֶה לַעֲשׂוֺת what is (was) to be done? Isaiah 5:4; 2 Kings 4:13; 2Chronicles 25:9 + (Dr§ 203). (g) expressing (according to the context) tendency, intention, or obligation (the 'periphrastic' future): — Hosea 9:13 וְאֶפְרַיִם לְהוֺצִיא אֶל הוֺרֵג בָּנָיו is for bringing forth (= must bring forth), Isaiah 10:32 עוד היום בנֹב לעמד is he for tarrying (must he tarry), Isaiah 38:20 להושׁיעני ׳י, ׳י is (ready) to save me, Isaiah 44:14 (si vera lectio), Jeremiah 51:49; Habakkuk 1:17; Psalm 32:9; Psalm 49:15 צוּרָם לְבַלּוֺת שְׁאוֺל = must Sheol waste away, Psalm 62:10 בְּמאֹזְנַיִם לַעֲלוֺת, Proverbs 18:24; Proverbs 19:8 שׁומר תבונה למצא טוב will be finding prosperity, Proverbs 20:25; Job 30:6; 1 Chronicles 22:5 (לִבְנוֺת), Ecclesiastes 3:15: of past time, Genesis 15:12 ויהי השׁמשׁ לבוא was about to go down, Joshua 2:5; 1 Samuel 14:21b (text dubious: Dr§ 206 Obs.), 2 Chronicles 26:5 (strangely) ויהי לדרשׁ אלהים RV set himself to seek; usually without היה, 2 Samuel 4:10 אֲשֶׁר לְתִתִּי לוֺ to whom it was for my giving (I ought to have given), 2 Kings 13:19 לְהַכּוֺת percutiendum erat, 1 Chronicles 9:25, and more freely 2Chronicles 11:22 כי להמליבו for (he was) for making him king, 2 Chronicles 12:12 ולא להשׁחית and was no longer for destroying him, 2 Chronicles 36:19 (?): in a question, Genesis 30:15 וְלָקַחַת and art thou for taking ? Esther 7:8; 2Chronicles 19:2 הֲלָרָשָׁע לַעְזֹּר wilt thou help the wicked ? compare Dr§ 204, Ges158; 114 h-k, Dav§ 94. (h) with וְ, in contin. (mostly) of a finite verb or participle, Exodus 32:29 מַלְאוּ יֶדְכֶם ֗֗֗ וְלָתֵת and be for placing etc. Leviticus 10:10f. (?), 1 Samuel 8:12 יִקַּח ֗֗֗ וְלָשׂוּם, Jeremiah 19:12 אעשׂה ֗֗֗ וְלָתֵת, Jeremiah 44:14; Hosea 12:3; Psalm 25:14; Psalm 109:16; Job 34:8; Ecclesiastes 7:25; Ecclesiastes 9:1 (si vera lectio), Daniel 12:11; Nehemiah 8:13; 1 Chronicles 10:13; 2Chron 2:8; 2 Chronicles 7:17; 8:13; 30:9; Ezekiel 13:22; Amos 8:4 ׳הַשֹּׁאֲפִים אֶבְיוֺן וְלַשְׁבִּית וג and (that are) for making the poor to cease, Isaiah 44:28 הָאוֺמֵר ֗֗֗ וְלֵאמֹר, Isaiah 56:6; Psalm 104:21; Jeremiah 17:10; Jeremiah 44:19; 1 Chronicles 6:34 (compare Dr§ 206 Dav:§ 96 R. 4). — On לְמִן, see מִן.
Note. — 1 Kings 6:19 לְתִתֵּן שָׁם, the supposition that לְ is a conjunction (= למען) is too alien to Hebrew usage to be justified by the Arabic for , and the view that תִתֵּן here and 1 Kings 17:14 is an anomalous form for תֵת (Ew§ 238 c Köi. 305) is against analogy: read with Ol§ 224 d, Ges§ 67 A. 3, Klo, לָתֵת (as 1 Kings 17:14 Qr).
מ ם, Mem, thirteenth letter; used as numeral 40 in Post-Biblical Hebrew
מַּ see מָה. מִּ see מִן.
מֹאָב see מוֺאָב. [מַאֲבוּס] see אבס.
מאד (√ of following Assyrian ma'âdu, be many, increase; ma'adu, many; ma'adiš, in abundance, DlHWB, 388 f.; compare Sabean מאד to add, DHMZMG 1883, 342 f. HomSüd-Ar. Chr. 127; Arabic begin to grow, of plant).
נ, ן, Nûn, fourteenth letter; used as numeral 50 in post-Biblical Hebrew
ס, Samekh, fifteenth letter; used as numeral 60 in Post-Biblical Hebrew
ע, `Ayin, sixteenth letter; used as numeral 70 in Post-Biblical Hebrew
עבב (√ of following, compare Köii. 1, 40; meaning unknown).
פ, מּ, ף, Pê, seventeenth letter; used as numeral 80 in post-Biblical Hebrew.
מֹּא see מֹּה.
צ, ץ, ‚a-dê, eighteenth letter; used as numeral 90 in post-Biblical Hebrew.
[צֵאָה], צֹאָה, [צֹאִי] see צוא.
ק, Kôph, 19th letter; = 100 in post-Biblical Hebrew.
[קֵא] see קיא. קָאם see קוּם.
שׂ sîn, 21st letter (with שׁ, q. v.).
שׂאר (√ of following; verb unknown; compare Late Hebrew שְׂאוֺר, סְאוֺר; Jewish-Aramaic סִיאוֺרָא, all leaven).
שׁ Šin, 21st letter (with שׂ); = 300 in post-Biblical Hebrew.
ת, תּ Taw, 22nd letter; = 400 in Post-Biblical Hebrew
[אָב] see אבה. below
preposition in, with, through, etc. (Biblical Hebrew בְּ); — suffix ׳בִּ, בָּךְ Daniel 4:6 +, 3 masculine singular בֵּהּ Daniel 3:7 +, feminine בַּהּ Daniel 2:4; Daniel 3:16 +, 3 plural בְּהוֺן Daniel 3:25 +; —
1 in, of place, Daniel 2:38; Daniel 3:1; Daniel 4:12 בֶּאֱסוּר +; at Ezra 5:10, of time Daniel 2:28; Daniel 3:5 (at), Daniel 5:2 +; Daniel 4:12; Ezra 4:16 ׳חֲלָק בְּ a share in (Biblical Hebrew 1. 2).
2 into, Daniel 2:38 יְהַב בִּידָךְ, Ezra 5:12; ׳עֲדָה ב pass over or upon Daniel 3:27.
3 of the instrument, by, with Daniel 2:30,34; Daniel 3:4; Daniel 4:12 b. 24. 27 +; Daniel 5:2,3(Amos 6:6: Biblical Hebrew III. 2).
4 of the price (ib.
III. 3), with, Ezra 7:17,18
5 יוֺם בְּיוֺם Ezra 6:9 = day by day (ib.
III. 3), end; so Syriac PS1577; compare ירח בירח S-CL5, PS4240).
6 through, on account of, (ib. III.), Ezra 6:14.
7 in the matter of, Daniel 6:6; Daniel 6:18,
8 after verbs of ruling, Daniel 2:38 +, trusting Daniel 6:24, looking at Daniel 7:8; עֲכַד בְּ to do with Daniel 4:32; Ezra 7:18, compare Lzb232 K§ 68.
interrogative particle (Biblical Hebrew הֲ, q. v. : ᵑ7 הֲ; not Syriac: on the vocal., see K§ 67, 2); — Daniel 2:26 הַאִיתָיח art thou . . . ? Daniel 3:14 הַצְדָּא (Baer Gi; editions הַצְדָא), Daniel 6:21 הַיְכִל can he . . . ? הֲלָא nonne ? Daniel 3:24; Daniel 4:27; Daniel 6:18.
conjunction and (Biblical Hebrew וְ), used mostly as in Hebrew, except that there is no ו 'consecutive'; — and, connecting both words (Daniel 2:5) and sentences (ib.). When three or more words are connected together, וְ may connect them all (Daniel 2:6,10; Daniel 4:34; Daniel 5:18), or only the two last (Daniel 2:17; Daniel 3:4; Daniel 4:4; Ezra 6:9), or the three last (Daniel 2:37; Ezra 3:21), or be omitted altogether (Daniel 2:27; Ezra 5:11, compare Daniel 3:2; Ezra 4:9). וְ also connects verbs, in cases where Biblical Hebrew would use וַּ , as Daniel 4:2; Daniel 5:29; Daniel 6:17; Daniel 6:25; in such cases a Perfect is often followed by a participle, as Daniel 2:7 עֲנוֺוְאָֽמְרִין, so Daniel 2:10; Daniel 3:9,16,24 +, hence in Daniel 2:5,8,15,20 and often read probably with NöGGA 1884, 1021 עֲנָה וְאָמַר (for עָנֵה). Special senses: —
a. and that Daniel 4:10; Daniel 4:12; Daniel 4:20; Ezra 6:8,9 (compare Daniel 2:16,18); and also Daniel 6:29; = with, Daniel 7:1.
b. connecting contrasted ideas, but Daniel 2:6; Daniel 3:6,18; Daniel 4:4.
c. = and so, Daniel 2:49; Daniel 6:2, especially after imperative Daniel 2:4,9,24, or imperfect Daniel 2:7.
d. to express an intention Daniel 5:2 וְיִשְׁתּוֺן that they might drink: after a command, etc., even with participle or perf., nearly = that, Daniel 2:13; Daniel 6:2 (compare K§ 102).
e. introducing the predicate (compare Biblical Hebrew 5c), Daniel 7:20 וְקִרְנָא דִכֵּן וְעֵינַיִם לַהּ and this horn, it had eyes; but the case is isolated, and del, probably וְ with Marti.
preposition to, for, in regard to, at, mark of accusative (Biblical Aramaic לְ, and General Aramaic); — suffix לי, לָךְ, לֵהּ, לַהּ Daniel 7:4,5 +; לָנָא Ezra 4:14; לְכֹם Ezra 5:3,9; Ezra 7:24 (so Egyptian Aramaic S-CPap. H 12. 14 +), לְכוֺן Daniel 3:4; לְהוֺם Jeremiah 10:11, לְהֹם Ezra 5:3,4,9,10; Ezra 6:9 (so Zinjirli, Cooke184; Nabataean, ib.Nos. 85, 91), לְהוֺן Daniel 2:35; Daniel 3:14; Daniel 6:3; Daniel 7:12 (Daniel 7:21 לְהֹן), Ezra 4:20; Ezra 5:2 (so Palmyrene, CookeNo. 110, Tariff ii.c.15 (p. 329)); —
1 to, after verbs of saying, declaring, writing, etc., Daniel 2:4,5,7,19; Daniel 6:21; Daniel 6:26, etc., giving Daniel 2:16,21 +, offering Ezra 6:10; of going (Aramaic does not use אֶל), usually to a place, Ezra 2:17 לְבַיתֵהּ אֲזַל, Ezra 3:26; Ezra 4:8; Ezra 6:20 #NAME?person Ezra 5:5; = towards Daniel 4:31; into Daniel 3:6,11; Daniel 6:17 +; in address of decree or letter Daniel 3:31; Ezra 5:7; Ezra 7:12; to fall or come to Daniel 4:16; Daniel 4:18; Daniel 5:17; Ezra 5:7; Ezra 7:20, be confirmed to Daniel 4:23.
2 as mark of accusative (as often in Aramaic; cf, in late Hebrew, Biblical Hebrew 3), Daniel 2:10,12,14,24 + often, Ezra 7:25... לכל (compare אֵת Judges 3:15; Isaiah 8:2).
3 to become or make into (Biblical Hebrew 4) Daniel 2:35; Daniel 4:27.
4. a. with reference to Ezra 6:8 לְמָא דִי, Ezra 7:14 (but read probably ׳וְעַל יְרוּשׁ).
b. belonging to Daniel 5:23 לֵהּ, Daniel 7:4,6,7, and in דִּי לֵהּ = his Daniel 2:20 +; with אִיתַי Ezra 4:16; הַשְׁכַּח לְ to find (belonging) to Ezra 2:35; Ezra 6:5; Ezra 6:6; Ezra 6:23 (compare Biblical Hebrew מָצָא לְ Deuteronomy 22:14 +).
c. as periphrase for the genitive (Biblical Hebrew 5c) Daniel 7:1 ׳בִּשְׁנַת חֲדָה לְ, Ezra 5:13; Ezra 6:3,15 (twice in verse); Ezra 5:8,11.
d. of the object or purpose, for (Biblical Hebrew 5g) Daniel 4:9 וּמָזוֺן לְכֹלָּאבֵֿהּ Daniel 4:27; Daniel 4:33; Daniel 7:22; Ezra 6:9,17; Ezra 7:19,23; on behalf of Ezra 6:10 b.
e. according to (Biblical Hebrew 5i) Ezra 6:17 ... לְמִנְיָן according to the number of ...
5 of time, at Daniel 4:26 ... לִקְצָת at the end of..., Daniel 4:31; to Daniel 2:4,44 + לְעָֽלְמִין.
6 with an infinitive (Biblical Hebrew
7), after such verbs as be able, think, need, agree command, decree, Daniel 2:9,10,12,24; Daniel 3:13,16,19; Daniel 3:32; Daniel 6:4; Daniel 6:5; Daniel 6:8; Daniel 6:24; Ezra 4:21,22; Ezra 5:3 + often; = in order to Daniel 2:13,14; Daniel 3:2,20, so as to Daniel 5:20. With לָא = not to be ... Daniel 6:9; Daniel 6:16 end Ezra 6:8, see לָא. compare the synopsis Lzb300f.
סַבְּכָא see שַׂבְּכָא.
קבל (√ of following, be in front of).